Truncal Blocks: Transversus Abdominis Plane Blocks and Derivatives

  • Aisling McMahon
  • John G. McDonnell
  • Jens Børglum


Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block, transversalis fascia plane (TFP) block and iliiohypogastric/ilioinguinal blocks are discussed. There are landmark-based and ultrasound-based insertion techniques described for each block with differences in efficacy and duration of effect. TAP approaches include subcostal oblique (anaesthesia above the umbilicus), mid-axillary (anaesthesia below the umbilicus), posterior (anaesthesia below the umbilicus) and the bilateral dual (complete abdominal wall anaesthesia). The TFP block provide anaesthesia of the L1 and L2 distribution and can provide analgesia for iliac crest bone grafting, open inguinal hernia repair and open appendicectomy. Iliohypogastric/ilioinguinal nerve blocks are primarily used for inguinal hernia repair surgery and can be landmark based as well as ultrasound guided.


Transversus abdominus plane block TAP block Transversalis fascia plane block TFP block Iliiohypogastric/ilioinguinal blocks 


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Recommended Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aisling McMahon
    • 1
  • John G. McDonnell
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jens Børglum
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Anaesthesia, The Clinical Sciences InstituteNational University of IrelandGalwayIreland
  2. 2.Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care MedicineGalway University HospitalsGalwayIreland
  3. 3.Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Zealand University HospitalUniversity of CopenhagenRoskildeDenmark

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