Copper Homeostasis in Gram-Negative Bacteria

  • Marc Solioz
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science book series (BRIEFSMOLECULAR)


Copper homeostasis in Gram-negative organisms is complicated by the two cell membranes and the periplasmic space. The thinking of how copper enters bacteria like E. coli has undergone some changes recently and new concepts have emerged. Also, the elusive CopZ-like copper chaperone has finally been discovered in E. coli. While the extrusion of excess copper via the CopA copper ATPase and the CusCFBA transporter and the regulation of these systems appear fairly clear, there are still major open questions concerning the metallation of cuproenzymes. Some provocative new concepts will be proposed.


Gram-negative Escherichia coli Two-component regulator RND-transporter Periplasm Multicopper oxidase Copper uptake Photosynthesis Cyanobacteria Methanogens 


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© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department Clinical ResearchUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland

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