Advertisement

What Do I Need to Know About the Father of a Late Preterm Infant so I Can Support Him in the Postpartum Period?

  • Shahirose Sadrudin PremjiEmail author
  • Gianella Santos Pana
Chapter

Abstract

Transition to fatherhood is marked by adaptive changes in the brain and biological responses which may influence role transition to parenthood, paternal-infant interaction, and neurodevelopmental outcomes of the late preterm infant (LPI). We completed a critical and narrative review through searching five electronic databases—Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, and CINAHL. Six studies provide insight on the father’s influence on neurodevelopment of LPIs, father-infant interaction, and paternal emotional distress. The literature though limited explains that fathers react and respond differently to LPIs when compared to mothers. Fathers feel they are in the periphery of maternal, newborn, and child health care and have unique needs and require different resources to cope. There is potential opportunity to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes of LPIs and exclusive breastfeeding through paternal caregiving environments that provide opportunities in the postpartum period for fathers to practice skin-to-skin contact and have reciprocal vocalizations or conversations with their LPI in sensitive and responsive ways. Consequently, fathers need to integrate in the provision of care to the newborn with emphasis on paternal, newborn, and child care.

Keywords

Late preterm infants Fathers Dad 

References

  1. 1.
    Brown K. Rebuilding the triad: including fathers in maternal-child health. Pacific J Reprod Health. 2017;1(5):214–7.  https://doi.org/10.18313/pjrh.2017.900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berg SJ, Wynne-Edwards KE. Changes in testosterone, cortisol, and estradiol, and estradiol levels in men becoming fathers. Mayo Clin Proc. 2001;76(6):582–92.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carré JM, McCormick CM, Hariri AR. The social neuroendocrinology of human aggression. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011;36(7):935–44.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Edelstein RS, Chopik WJ, Saxbe DE, Wardecker BM, Moors AC, LaBelle OP. Prospective and dyadic associations between expectant parents’ prenatal hormone changes and postpartum parenting outcomes. Dev Psychobiol. 2017;59(1):77–90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Edelstein RS, Kean EL, Chopik WJ. Women with an avoidant attachment style show attenuated estradiol responses to emotionally intimate stimuli. Horm Behav. 2012;61(2):167–75.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Edelstein RS, Wardecker BM, Chopik WJ, Moors AC, Shipman EL, Lin NJ. Prenatal hormones in first-time expectant parents: Longitudinal changes and within-couple correlations. Am J Hum Biol. 2015;27(3):317–25.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gettler LT, McDade TW, Agustin SS, Feranil AB, Kuzawa CW. Do testosterone declines during the transition to marriage and fatherhood relate to men’s sexual behavior? Evidence from the Philippines. Horm Behav. 2013;64(5):755–63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wynne-Edwards KE. Hormonal changes in mammalian fathers. Horm Behav. 2001;40(2):139–45.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    McEwen BS. Neurobiological and systemic effects of chronic stress. Chronic Stress. 2017;1:PMID:28856337.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2470547017692328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cameron EE, Sedov ID, Tomfohr-Madsen LM. Prevalence of paternal depression in pregnancy and the postpartum: an updated meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2016;206:189–203.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad/2016.07.044.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Paulson JF, Bazemore SD. Prenatal and postpartum depression in fathers and its association with maternal depression: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2010;303(19):1961–9.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2010.605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sethna V, Murray L, Edmondson O, Iles J, Ramchandani PG. Depression and playfulness in fathers and young infants: a matched design comparison study. J Affect Disord. 2018;229:364–70.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Luoma I, Puura K, Mäntymaa M, Latva R, Salmelin R, Tamminen T. Fathers’ postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms: an exploration of links with paternal, maternal, infant and family factors. Nord J Psychiatry. 2013;67(6):407–13.  https://doi.org/10.3109/08039488.2012.752034. Epub 2013 Jan 3CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Menashe-Grinberg A, Atzaba-Poria N. Mother-child and father-child play interaction: the importance of parental playfulness as a moderator of the links between parental behavior and child negativity. Infant Ment Health J. 2017;38(6):772–84.  https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.21678.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Munakata S, Okada T, Okahashi A, et al. Gray matter volumetric MRI differences late-preterm and term infants. Brain and Development. 2013;35:10–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Walsh JM, Doyle LW, Anderson PJ, Lee KJ, Cheong JL. Moderate and late preterm birth: effect on brain size and maturation at term-equivalent age. Radiology. 2014;273(1):232–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dixon-Woods M, Cavers D, Agarwal S, Annandale E, Arthur A, Harvey J, et al. Conducting a critical interpretive synthesis of the literature on access to healthcare by vulnerable groups. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2006;6:35.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-6-35.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grant MJ, Booth A. A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Inf Libr J. 2009;26(2):91–108.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-1842.2009.00848.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Benzies K, Magill-Evans J. Giving voice to the experiences of first-time fathers of late preterm infants: a qualitative study. [Abstract]. Arch Dis Child. 2014;99(Supl 2):A1–A620.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Benzies K, Magill-Evans J. Through the eyes of a new dad: experiences of first-time fathers of late-preterm infants. Infant Ment Health J. 2015;36(1):78–87.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Benzies KM, Magill-Evans J, Kurilova J, Nettel-Aguirre A, Blahitka L, Lacaze-Masmonteil T. Effects of video-modeling on the interaction skills of first-time fathers of late preterm infants. Infants Young Children. 2013;26(4):333–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mughal MKG, Carla S, Magill-Evans J, Benzies KM. Parenting stress and development of late preterm infants at 4 months corrected age. Res Nurs Health. 2017;40(5):414–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Johnson K, Caskey M, Rand K, Tucker R, Vohr B. Gender differences in adult-infant communication in the first months of life. Pediatrics. 2014;134(6):e1603–31610.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-4289.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hadfield K, O’Brien F, Gerow A. Is the level of prematurity a risk/plasticity factor at three years of age? Infant Behav Dev. 2017;47:27–39.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2017.03.003.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nyqvist KH, Rosenblad A, Volgstern H, Funkquist E-L, Mattsson E. Early skin-to-skin contact between healthy late preterm infants and their parents: an observational cohort study. Peer J. 2017;5:e3949.  https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3949.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Belsky J, Pluess M. Beyond diathesis stress: differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Psychol Bull. 2009;135(6):885–908.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017376.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Monroe SM, Simons AD. Diathesis-stress theories in the context of life-stress research: implications for depressive disorders. Psychol Bull. 1991;110:406–25.  https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-2909.110.3.406.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gueron-Sela N, Atzaba-Poria N, Meiri G, Marks K. The caregiving environment and developmental outcomes of preterm infants: diathesis stress or differential susceptibility effects? Child Dev. 2015;86(4):1014–30.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zimmerman FJ, Gilkerson J, Richards JA, Christakis DA, Xu D, Gray S, Yapanel U. Teaching by listening: the importance of adult-child conversation to language development. Pediatrics. 2009;124(1):342–9.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2008.2008-2267.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Caskey M, Stephens B, Tucker R, Vohr B. Adult talk in the NICU with preterm infants and developmental outcomes. Pediatrics. 2014;133(3):e578–84.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-0104.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pancsofar N, Vernon-Feagans L, The Family Life Project Investigators. Fathers’ early contributions to children’s language development in families from low-income rural communities. Early Child Res Q. 2010;25(4):450–63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Charpak N, Ruiz-Peláez JG. Resistance to implementing kangaroo mother care in developing countries, and proposed solutions. Acta Paediatr. 2007;95(5):529–34.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2006.tb02279.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bronfenbrenner U. Ecology of the family as a context for human development: research perspectives. Dev Psychol. 1986;22(6):723–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Abidin R. Parenting Stress Index: Professional Manual. 3rd ed. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources; 1995.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Misri S, Reebye P, Milis L, Shah S. The impact of treatment intervention on parenting stress in postpartum depressed mothers: a prospective study. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2006;76(1):115–9.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0002-9432.76.1.115.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Leigh B, Milgrom J. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress. BMC Psychiatry. 2008;8:24.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-8-24.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shahirose Sadrudin Premji
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gianella Santos Pana
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Nursing, Faculty of HealthYork UniversityTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Birth Doula, Chavah Childbirth Services Inc.CalgaryCanada
  3. 3.Faculty of NursingUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations