Advertisement

Landscape Lab pp 191-218 | Cite as

Landscape and Natural Resources: Green Infrastructure and Green Community Projects in the Umbrian Region

  • Fabio Bianconi
  • Marco Filippucci
Chapter
Part of the Urban and Landscape Perspectives book series (URBANLAND, volume 20)

Abstract

Within the principal resources useful for the next landscape models, natural elements represent a substantial structure ever more necessary for the sustainability of places. Landscape cannot be reduced to its picturesque aspects, because, in this case, it could become more an idea than a reality, disjoint from material issues. The case study of Umbria represents a paradigmatic example of a romantic vision of a territory, called “the Green Heart of Italy”. In the front of a strong natural example, the storytelling of landscape tries to communicate this idealistic model in a bucolic style, without a real strategy for nature and environment; those are aspects of the same landscape reality. The case studies presented here derive from an interdisciplinary reading within the ecological road, with the aim of rethinking landscape through conserving and valorizing biodiversity. Also, in the front of the economic crisis, this topic represents an opportunity to develop territories, according to EU directives. To create a smart landscape, “to do more with less,” it is necessary to start from conservation of natural capital, redrawing the green infrastructures, today fragmented, as in the two cases proposed about green peri-urban corridors in Corciano territory and the green corridor of the Tiber River. Both proposals are founded on integration of knowledge and approaches, where the cooperation between different territorial actors represents the flywheel to lead a territory through a synthesis between environment and climatic functions and landscape issues. The approach in the representation topic is central in the planning activities, in the field of connections of different issues and questions, and a place of simulation of the next landscape.

Keywords

Environment strategy Green infrastructure European founds Planning Drawing 

References

  1. Ahern J (1995) Greenways as a planning strategy. Landsc Urban Plan 33:131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvisi G (1989) La fotografia aerea nell’indagine archeologica. La Nuova Italia Scientifica, RomaGoogle Scholar
  3. Austin RL (1984) Designing the natural landscape. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Beltrame G (1993) La Pianificazione territoriale, l’ambiente e la svolta ecologica. In: Araldi L, Beltrame G (eds) Pianificazione dell’ambiente e del paesaggio. Francoangeli, MilanoGoogle Scholar
  5. Benedict MA, McMahon ED (2002) Green infrastructure: smart conservation for the 21st century. Renew Resour J (Autumn)Google Scholar
  6. Benedict MA, McMahon ET (2006) Green infrastructure. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  7. Bettencourt L, West GB (2011) Bigger cities do more with less. Sci Am 305:38–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bianconi F (2005) Segni digitali. Morlacchi, PerugiaGoogle Scholar
  9. Borrini-Feyerabend G, Pimbert M, Farvar MT, Kothari A, Renard Y (2008) Sharing power: a global guide to collaborative management of natural resource. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Botzat A, Fischer LK, Kowarik I (2016) Unexploited opportunities in understanding liveable and biodiverse cities. A review on urban biodiversity perception and valuation. Glob Environ Chang 39:220–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bryant MM (2006) Urban landscape conservation and the role of ecological greenways at local and metropolitan scales. Landsc Urban Plan 76:23–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cambi F, Terrenato N (1994) Introduzione all’archeologia dei paesaggi. Carocci, RomaGoogle Scholar
  13. Cambi F et al (2003) Archeologia dei paesaggi antichi: fonti e diagnostica. Carocci, RomaGoogle Scholar
  14. Chon J, Scott SC (2009) Aesthetic responses to urban greenway trail environments. Landsc Res 34:83–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Council of Europe (2000) European Landscape Convention, Florence (20.X.2000). ETS No. 176Google Scholar
  16. Dallimer M, Irvine KN, Skinner AMJ, Davies ZG, Rouquette JR, Maltby LL, Warren PH, Armsworth PR, Gaston KJ (2012) Biodiversity and the feel-good factor: understanding associations between self-reported human well-being and species richness. Bioscience 62:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. di Fidio M (1993) Architettura del Paesaggio. Pirola, MilanoGoogle Scholar
  18. Dixon HJ (1993) Nel concetto delle tre nature. Casabella 597–598:99Google Scholar
  19. EEA (2011) Green infrastructure and territorial cohesion. EEA (European Environment Agency), CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  20. European Commission (2012) The multifunctionality of green infrastructure. Science for environment policy. European Commission, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  21. European Commission (2013) Green infrastructure (GI) – enhancing Europe’s natural capital, COM. Communication from the European Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, 249 finalGoogle Scholar
  22. Farinelli F (1991) L’arguzia del paesaggio. Casabella 575–576:10–12Google Scholar
  23. Forman TTR, Sperling D, Bissonette JA, Clevenger AP, Cutshall CD, Dale VH, Fahring L, France R, Goldman CR, Heanue K, Jones JA, Swanson FJ, Turrentine T, Winter TC (2003) Road ecology: science and solutions. Island Press, Washington DC/Covelo/LondonGoogle Scholar
  24. Gambi L (1986) La costruzione dei piani paesistici. Urbanistica 85:102–105Google Scholar
  25. Gambino R (1997) Conservare e innovare. Utet, TorinoGoogle Scholar
  26. Gobster PH (1995) Perception and use of a metropolitan greenway system for recreation. Landsc Urban Plan 33:401–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gómez-Baggethun E., Gren Å., Barton D.N., Langemeyer J., McPhearson T., O’Farrell P., Andersson E., Hamstead Z., Hamstead P., (2013) Urban ecosystem services, in Elmqvist T., Fragkias M., Goodness J., Güneralp B., Marcotullio P.J., McDonald R.I., Parnell S., Schewenius M., Sendstad M., Seto K.C., Wilkinson C. (eds.), Urbanization, biodiversity and ecosystem services: challenges and opportunities. A global assessment. Springer, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Gregotti V (1993) Gli spazi aperti urbani: fenomenologia di un problema progettuale. Casabella 597–598:2–4Google Scholar
  29. Haase D, Larondelle N, Andersson E, Artmann M, Borgström S, Breuste J, Gomez-Baggethun E, Gren Å, Hamstead Z, Hansen R, Kabisch N, Kremer P, Langemeyer J, Rall EL, McPhearson T, Pauleit S, Qureshi S, Schwarz N, Voigt A, Wurster D, Elmqvist T (2014) Quantitative review of urban ecosystem service assessments: concepts, models, and implementation. Ambio 43:413–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hagen M, Kissling WD, Rasmussen C, De Aguiar MAM, Brown LE, Carstensen DW, Alves-Dos-Santos I, Dupont YL, Edwards FK, Genini J, Guimarães PR, Jenkins GB, Jordano P, Kaiser-Bunbury CN, Ledger ME, Maia KP, Darcie Marquitti FM, Mclaughlin Ó, Morellato LPC, O’Gorman EJ, Trøjelsgaard K, Tylianakis JM, Morais Vidal M, Woodward G, Olesen JM (2012) Biodiversity: species interactions and ecological networks in a fragmented world. Adv Ecol Res 46:89–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hawken P, Amory BL, Hunter LL (1999) Natural capitalism: creating the next industrial revolution. Little, Brown, BostonGoogle Scholar
  32. Hoggart K, Buller H, Black R (1995) Rural Europe. Identity and change. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. Hopkins R (2011) The transition companion: making your community more resilient in uncertain times. Chelsea Green Publishing, White River JunctionGoogle Scholar
  34. Huxley J (1942) Evolution: the modern synthesis. Allen and Unwin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  35. Ingold T (2000) The perception of the environment: essays on livelihood, dwelling and skill. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  36. Jetz W, Carbone C, Fulford J, Brown JH (2004) The scaling of animal space use. Science 306:266–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jongman RHG (1995) Nature conservation planning in Europe: developing ecological networks. Landsc Urban Plan 32:169–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jongman R (2004) The context and concept of ecological networks. In: Jongman R, Pungetti G (eds) Ecological networks and greenways concept, design and implementation. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kabisch N, Frantzeskaki N, Pauleit S, Artmann M, Davis M, Haase D, Knapp S, Korn H, Stadler J, Zaunberger K, Bonn A (2016) Nature-based solutions to climate change mitigation and adaptation in urban areas–perspectives on indicators, knowledge gaps, opportunities and barriers for action. Ecol Soc 21:39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lindenmayer DB, Fischer J (2006) Habitat fragmentation and landscape change: an ecological and conservation synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  41. Little CE (1990) Greenways for America. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore/LondonGoogle Scholar
  42. Luederitz C, Brink E, Gralla F, Hermelingmeier F, Meyer M, Niven L, Panzer L, Partelow S, Rau A-L, Sasaki R, Abson DJ, Lang DJ, Wamsler C, von Wehrden H (2015) A review of urban ecosystem services: six key challenges for future research. Ecosyst Serv 14:98–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mace GM, Norris K, Fitter AH (2012) Biodiversity and ecosystem services: a multilayered relationship. Trends Ecol Evol 27:19–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McCurry S (1985) Cover. National Geographic Magazine. 6Google Scholar
  45. McCurry S (2009) The unguarded moment. Phaidon, LondonGoogle Scholar
  46. Meier T (2012) Landscape, environment and a vision of interdisciplinarity. In: Kluiving SJ, Guttmann-Bond E (eds) Landscape archaeology between art and science. Amsterdam University Press, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  47. Opdam P, Steingröver E, Van Rooij S (2006) Ecological networks: a spatial concept for multi-actor planning of sustainable landscapes. Landsc Urban Plan 75:322–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pett TJ, Shwartz A, Irvine KN, Dallimer M, Davies ZG (2016) Unpacking the people-biodiversity paradox: a conceptual framework. Bioscience 66:576–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Piccareta F, Ceraudo G (2000) Manuale di aerofotografia archeologica. Edipuglia, BariGoogle Scholar
  50. Ponte A (1990) Il parco pubblico in Gran Breatagna e negli Stati Uniti, Dal genius loci al “genio della civilizzazione”. In: Mosser M, Teyssot G (eds) L’architettura dei giardini d’Occidente. Electa, MilanoGoogle Scholar
  51. Purini F (1991) Un paese senza paesaggio. Casabella 575–576:43Google Scholar
  52. Romano B (2009) Le interferenze insediative. In: Reru, Rete Ecologica Regionale dell’Umbria. Regione Umbria, Petruzzi, Città di CastelloGoogle Scholar
  53. Romano B, Zullo F (2012) Landscape fragmentation in Italy. Indices implementation to support territorial policies. In: Campagna M, De Montis A, Isola F, Lai S, Pira C, Zoppi C (eds) Planning support tools: policy analysis, implementation and evaluation. FrancoAngeli, RomeGoogle Scholar
  54. Sereni E (1961) Storia del paesaggio agrario italiano. Bari, LaterzaGoogle Scholar
  55. Sereno P (1992) L’archeologia del paesaggio agrario: una nuova frontiera della ricerca. In: Boriani M, Scazzosi L (eds) Natura e architettura, La conservazione del patrimonio paesistico. Città Studi, MilanoGoogle Scholar
  56. Seto KC, Güneralp B, Hutyra LR (2012) Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, p 109Google Scholar
  57. Settis S (ed) (1983) Misurare la terra. Centuriazione e coloni nel mondo romano. Franco Cosimo Panini, ModenaGoogle Scholar
  58. Settis S (2005) Battaglie senza eroi. I beni culturali tra istituzioni e profitto. Mondadori Electa, MilanoGoogle Scholar
  59. Settis S (2012) Paesaggio Costituzione cemento. La battaglia per l’ambiente contro il degrado civile. Einaudi, TorinoGoogle Scholar
  60. Settis S (2014) Azione popolare. Cittadini per il bene comune. Einaudi, TorinoGoogle Scholar
  61. Steiner FR (2008) The living landscape, Second edition: an ecological approach to landscape planning. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  62. Van der Sluis T, Pedroli B (2004) Ecological network analysis for Regione Umbria (Italy). Alterra-report 1013, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  63. Wiegand T, Revilla E, Moloney KA (2005) Effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population dynamics. Conserv Biol 19:108–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ziter C (2016) The biodiversity–ecosystem service relationship in urban areas: a quantitative review. Oikos 125:761–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabio Bianconi
    • 1
  • Marco Filippucci
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Study of PerugiaPerugiaItaly

Personalised recommendations