Mycobacterial disease remains as prevalent in the twenty-first century as it did many millennia ago. Current thinking on pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of mycobacterial diseases, both tuberculous and non-tuberculous (NTM) is described. Improved understanding of pathogenesis and the natural history of the infection has informed prevention strategies. Molecular techniques have led to faster diagnosis, identification, and treatment planning. Latent TB and the significance of NTM disease remains challenging. Treatment remains difficult, as a prolonged course of multiple antibiotics is still required, and thus increases the likelihood of developing drug-resistant TB.
KeywordsTuberculosis Non-tuberculous mycobacteria Quantiferon test MDR-TB XDR-TB
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