Advertisement

Ethno-ecology of the Healing Forests of Sarban Hills, Abbottabad, Pakistan: An Economic and Medicinal Appraisal

  • Farhana Ijaz
  • Inayat Ur Rahman
  • Zafar Iqbal
  • Jane Alam
  • Niaz Ali
  • Shujaul Mulk Khan
Chapter

Abstract

The present studies aimed to explore plant diversity and ethnoecologically important plants of the Sarban Hills in District Abbottabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. The area is gifted with diverse and unique flora because of the extension and mixing of three type of forests, i.e., subtropical pine forest, subtropical broadleaf forest, and the Himalayan moist temperate forests. A total of 147 plant species belonging to angiosperm, gymnosperms, and pteridophytes were reported. Percent shares of Trees were 19.8%, shrubs 30.8%, herbs 58.8%, and climbers 5.4%. The angiosperm species found here were representing 56 families (6 families of monocots and 50 families of dicots), gymnosperm having 3 species, and pteridophytes having 2 species. Among these families, Asteraceae was the leading family with 19 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 15 species and Papilionaceae with 13 species. The gymnosperm was represented by two families: Pinaceae was represented by Pinus roxburghii and Cedrus deodara and the second family was Cupressaceae with one species, i.e., Cupressus sempervirens. The pteridophytes were represented by two species. The ethnobotanical information shows diverse usages of the 147 plant species; 107 of these are used as medicine, 20 as fuel woods, and 20 as fodders. Further, 85 species are herbs, 45 are shrubs, 29 are trees, and 8 are climber and trailers. The species Aesculus indica, Cedrus deodara, Pinus Roxburghii, Zanthoxylum armatum, and Dalbergia sissoo have multiple uses. Data on use of plant parts, show that mostly leaves and roots have been practiced in the traditional recipes, while other parts of plants like fruits, shoot, bulb fronds, and bark are used in relatively lower percentage. It has been found that some species are no more available in their respective habitats in this area due to excessive collection, overgrazing, deforestation, and unawareness of the indegenous communities.

References

  1. Abbas Z, Khan SM, Abbassi AM, Pieroni A, Ullah Z, Iqbal M, Ahmad Z (2016) Ethnobotany of the Balti community, Tormik valley, Karakorum range, Baltistan, Pakistan. J Ethnob Ethnomed 12:38.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-016-0114-yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abbasi AM, Khan SM, Ahmad M, Khan MA, Quave CL, Pieroni A (2013) Botanical ethnoveterinary therapies in three districts of the Lesser Himalayas of Pakistan. J Ethnob Ethnomed 9:84.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmad H (2003) Cultivation and sustainable harvesting of medicinal and aromatic plants through community involvement. Intern, workshop on conservation and sustainable use of medicinal and aromatic plants in Pakistan, WWF, MINFAL and Qarshi industries Pvt. Ltd. p 1Google Scholar
  4. Ahmad H, Sirajuddin (1996) Ethnobotanical profile of Swat. In: Shinwari ZK, Khan BA, Khan AA (eds) Proceedings of the first training workshop on ethnobotany and its application to conservation, National Herbarium. PARC, Islamabad, pp 113–118Google Scholar
  5. Ahmad H, Khan SM, Ghafoor S, Ali N (2009) Ethnobotanical study of upper Siran. J Herbs Spices Med Plants 15:86–97Google Scholar
  6. Ahmad H, Turk MO, Ahmad W, Khan SM (2015) Status of natural resources in the Uplands of the Swat Valley, Pakistan. In: Ozturk M, Hakeem KR, Faridah-Hanum I, Efe R (eds) Climate change impacts on high-altitude ecosystems. Springer, New york, p 647 http://www.springer.com/us/book/9783319128580Google Scholar
  7. Ahmad Z, Khan SM, Ali S, Rahman IU, Ara H, Noreen I, Khan A (2016) Indicator species analyses of weed communities of maize crop in district Mardan, Pakistan. Pak J Weed Sci Res 22(2):227–238Google Scholar
  8. Ali SI (2008) Significance of Flora with special reference to Pakistan. Pak J Bot 40(3):967–971Google Scholar
  9. Ali SI, Qaiser M (1986) A photographic analysis of the Phanerogams of Pakistan and Kashmir. Proc R Soc Edinburgh 89B:89–101Google Scholar
  10. Baillie JEM, Hilton-Taylor C, Stuart SN (2004) 2004 IUCN red list of threatened species: global species assessment. IUCN, Switzerland and CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  11. Bibi F, Ahmad H, Qureshi RA, Shaheen N, Khan SM, Shaheen S, Shaheen G (2016) Ethno medicinal attributes and antioxidant screening of some selected plant species of Tanawal area. Pak Int J Bios 9(1):237–254Google Scholar
  12. Biswas AK (1987) Environmental concerns in Pakistan with special reference to water and forests. Environ Conserv 14:4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blatter E (1928–1929) Beautiful flowers of Kashmir, vol 2. Jhon Bale and Danielsson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Chaudhry M, Ahmad S, Ali A, Sher H, Malik S (2000) Technical report. Market study of medicinal herbs in Malakand, Peshawar, Lahore and Karachi. SDC-Intercorporation, Peshawar, p 7Google Scholar
  15. Cousins DJ (1995) Plants with antimicrobial properties (antiviral, antifungal and antimicrobial). International. pp 116–134Google Scholar
  16. Dhar U, Kachroo P (1984) Alpine flora of Kashmir. In: Its photographic assessment. Printing Press, JodhpurGoogle Scholar
  17. Frazer-Jenkins CR (1991) The ferns and allies of far west Himalaya. Pakistan Syst 5(1–2):85–120Google Scholar
  18. Hamayun M (2005) Studies on Ethnobotany, Conservation and plant diversity of Utror and Gabral Valleys District Swat, Pakistan. Ph.D. thesis Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad, PakistanGoogle Scholar
  19. Hamayun M, Khan MA (2003) Common medicinal folk recipes of District Buner, NWFP, Pakistan. J Ethnobot Leaflets 17(7):2003–2007Google Scholar
  20. Hamilton AC (2004) Medicinal plants, conservation and livelihoods. Biodivers Conserv 13:1477–1517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Haq I (1993) Medicinal plants of Mansehra District, NWFP, Pakistan. Hamdard Med 34(3):51–86Google Scholar
  22. Haq I, Hussain M (1993) Medicinal plants of Mansehra. Hamdard Med XXXVI(3):63–100Google Scholar
  23. Hedge IC, Wendelbo P (1978) Patterns of distribution and endemism in Iran. Notes from Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh 36:441–464Google Scholar
  24. IUCN (2004) IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, GlandGoogle Scholar
  25. Ijaz F (2014) Biodiversity and traditional uses of plants of Sarban Hills, Abbottabad. M. Phil. Thesis, Hazara University Mansehra, KP, PakistanGoogle Scholar
  26. Ijaz F, Iqbal Z, Alam J, Khan SM, Afzal A, Rahman IU, Afzal M, Islam M, Sohail M (2015) Ethno medicinal study upon folk recipes against various human diseases in Sarban Hills, Abbottabad, Pakistan. World J Zool 10(1):41–46Google Scholar
  27. Ijaz F, Iqbal Z, Rahman IU, Khan SM, Shah GM, Khan K, Afzal A (2016) Investigation of traditional medicinal floral knowledge of Sarban Hills, Abbottabad, KP, Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol 179:208–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kazim MA, Siddiqui IA (1953) The drug plants of Kalat state. Pak J Forest: 217–237Google Scholar
  29. Khan SM, Ahmad H (2014) Role of indigenous Arqiyat distillery in conservation of Rosa species. Int J Phytoremediation 6(2):162–164Google Scholar
  30. Khan SM, Ahmad H (2015) Species diversity and use patterns of the alpine flora with special reference to climate change in the Naran, Pakistan. In: Ozturk M, Hakeem KR, Faridah-Hanum I, Efe R (eds) Climate change impacts on high-altitude ecosystems, Springer, New York, p 647. ISBN:978-3-319-12858-0, http://www.springer.com/us/book/9783319128580Google Scholar
  31. Khan AA, Fevre JL (1996) Indigenous knowledge of plants: a case study in Chitral. Proc. First Train. Workshop Ethnob. Appl. Conser., PARC, Islamabad, pp 136–151Google Scholar
  32. Khan SM, Harper DM, Page S, Ahmad H (2011) Residual Value Analyses of the medicinal flora of the western Himalaya; The Naran Valley Pakistan. Pak J Bot 43(SI):97–104Google Scholar
  33. Khan SM, Page S, Ahmad H, Harper DM (2012a) Anthropogenic influences on the natural ecosystem of the Naran valley in the Western Himalayas. Pak J Bot 44(SI):231–238Google Scholar
  34. Khan SM, Page S, Ahmad H, Shaheen H, Harper DM (2012b) Vegetation dynamics in the Western Himalayas, diversity indices and climate change. Sci Tech Dev 31(3):232–243Google Scholar
  35. Khan SM, Page S, Ahmad H, Shaheen H, Zahidullah MA, Harper DM (2013a) Medicinal flora and ethnoecological knowledge in the Naran Valley, Western Himalaya, Pakistan. J Ethnob Ethnomed 9:4.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Khan SM, Page S, Ahmad H, Harper DM (2013b) Identifying plant species and communities across environmental gradients in the western Himalayas: method development and conservation use. J Ecol Inf 14:99–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Khan SM, Page S, Ahmad H, Harper DM (2013c) Sustainable utilization and conservation of plant biodiversity in montane ecosystems; using the western Himalayas as a case study. Ann Bot 112(3):479–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Khan SM, Page S, Ahmad H, Harper DM (2014) Ethno-ecological importance of plant biodiversity in mountain ecosystems with special emphasis on indicator species; a case study of the Naran Valley in the northern Pakistan. J Ecol Ind 37(Part A):175–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Khan KU, Shah M, Ahmad H, Ashraf M, Rahman IU, Iqbal Z, Khan SM, Majid A (2015) Investigation of traditional veterinary phytomedicines used in Deosai plateau, Pakistan. Glob Vet 15(4):381–388Google Scholar
  40. Lange D (1998) Europe’s medicinal and aromatic plants: their use, trade and conservation. TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, p 77., 2 appendicesGoogle Scholar
  41. Lewin L (1964) Phantastica: narcotics and stimulating drugs. their uses and abuses. Dutton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Martin GJ (1995) Ethnobotany, a people and plants conservation manual. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  43. Mehmood A, Khan SM, Shah AH, Shah AH, Ahmad H (2015) First floristic exploration of District Torghar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pak J Bot 47(SI):57–70Google Scholar
  44. Multi-Donor Support Unit (MSU) (2000) District population profile: Operationalising and interpreting population census data for planning (NWFP) Islamabad GoPGoogle Scholar
  45. Nasir E, Ali SI (1982) Flora of Pakistan. Pan Graphics Ltd, IslamabadGoogle Scholar
  46. Parker RN (1918. (Reprinted 1973) A Forest Flora of Punjab with Hazara and Delhi. Govt. Printing Press, LahoreGoogle Scholar
  47. Pieroni A, Quave CL (eds) (2014) Ethnobotany and biocultural diversities in the Balkans: perspectives on sustainable rural development and reconciliation. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  48. Rahman IU, Ijaz F, Afzal A, Iqbal Z, Ali N, Khan SM (2016a) Contributions to the phytotherapies of digestive disorders; traditional knowledge and cultural drivers of Manoor Valley, northern Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol 192:30–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rahman A, Khan SM, Hussain A, Rahman IU, Iqbal Z, Ijaz F (2016b) Ecological assessment of plant communities and associated edaphic and topographic variables of the Peochar Valley district swat of the Hindu Kush Mountains. Mount Res Devel 36(3):332–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schippmann U (2001) Medicinal plants significant trade. CITES Project S-109, Plants committee document PC9 9.1.3. (rev.). BFN Skripten-39, Bundesamt fur Naturschutz, BonnGoogle Scholar
  51. Sher H (2002) Some medicinal and economic plants of Mahodand, Utror, Gabral valleys (district Sawat), Gabur, Brgusht valleys (district Chitral), Feb 2002. Report for Pak, mount, Areas conserv, Proj. IUCN, NWFP-ChitralGoogle Scholar
  52. Shinwari MI, Khan MA (1998) Ethnobotany of Margalla Hills, National Park of Islamabad. Department of Biological Sciences Quaid-e-Azam University, IslamabadGoogle Scholar
  53. Singh V, Pandey RP (1980) Medicinal plants-lore of the tribals of eastern Rajasthan. India J Econ Bot 1:137–148Google Scholar
  54. Stewart RR (1972) An annotated catalogue to the vascular plants of West Pakistan and Kashmir. Fakhri Printing Press, KarachiGoogle Scholar
  55. Sudarsanum G, Reddy MB, Nagaru N (1995) Veterinary crude drugs in Rayalaseema, Andhra Pradesh, India. Int J Pharm 33(1):52–60Google Scholar
  56. WHO (2002) World Health Organization traditional medicine strategy 2002–2005, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  57. Zaman MB, Khan MS (1970) Hundred drug plants of West Pakistan. Medicinal plants branch. PFI, Peshawar, pp 5–8Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Farhana Ijaz
    • 1
  • Inayat Ur Rahman
    • 1
  • Zafar Iqbal
    • 1
  • Jane Alam
    • 1
  • Niaz Ali
    • 1
  • Shujaul Mulk Khan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BotanyHazara UniversityMansehraPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Plant SciencesQuaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations