Epimedium elatum (Morr & Decne): A Therapeutic Medicinal Plant from Northwestern Himalayas of India

  • Sajad Ahmad Lone
  • Ajai Prakash Gupta
  • Malik Muzafar Manzoor
  • Pooja Goyal
  • Qazi Pervaiz Hassan
  • Suphla Gupta


Epimedium is a genus of perennial herbs in family Berberidaceae, which are eminent in Chinese ethno-pharmacology due to varied pharmaceutical properties ranging from aphrodisiac, anti-osteoporosis, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-fatigue and anti-ageing to antiviral activities. The biological activities of the plant are attributed to four major chemical constituents—icariin, epimedin A, epimedin B and Epimedium C (ABCI). Epimedium elatum (Morr & Decne), inhabiting Northwestern Himalayas of India, is a unique and rare perennial medicinal herb which has not been researched and exploited much in terms of phytochemistry and molecular aspects.

In this review, we have summarised phytochemical and molecular work that has been published so far in Epimedium in general and E. elatum in particular. The main aim behind compiling this chapter is to highlight the medicinal potential of E. elatum as one of the source for Herba Epimedii in coming decades. This is also an attempt to draw attention of researchers and stakeholders towards this unexploited medicinal plant.


E. elatum ABCI multiglycosides Kashmir Himalayas Phenotypic plasticity 


  1. Akai S (1935) Constituents of Epimedium macranthum Morr and Decne I. Chemical constitution of a new glucoside of Epimedium macranthum Morr and Decne I. J Pharm Soc Jpn 55:537–599Google Scholar
  2. Alam A, Naik PK, Gulati P, Gulati AK, Mishra GP (2008) Characterization of genetic structure of Podophyllum hexandrum populations, an endangered medicinal herb of Northwestern Himalaya, using ISSR-PCR markers and its relatedness with podophyllotoxin content. Afr J Biotechnol 7:8Google Scholar
  3. Amico V, Chillemi R, Mangiafico S, Spatafora C, Tringali C (2008) Polyphenol-enriched fractions from Sicilian grape pomace: HPLC–DAD analysis and antioxidant activity. Bioresour Technol 99(13):5960–5966PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Arief ZM, Munshi AH, Shawl AS (2015) Evaluation of medicinal value of Epimedium elatum on the basis of pharmacologically active constituents, Icariin and Icariside-II. Pak J Pharm Sci 28:5Google Scholar
  5. Arief ZM, Shawl AS, Munshi AH (2016) Altitudinal variation in pharmacologically active compounds of wild and cultivated populations of Epimedium elatum. J Appl Res Med Aromat Plants 3(2):48–51Google Scholar
  6. Badola HK (2002) Endangered medicinal plant species-priorities and action. Theme Paper, International Workshop, Endangered Medicinal Plant Species in Himachal Pradesh, GBPIHED, Mohal-Kullu, India (18–19 March, 2002). p. 11Google Scholar
  7. Badola HK, Aitken S (2003) The Himalayas of India: a treasury of medicinal plants under siege. Biodiversity 4(3):3–13Google Scholar
  8. Bian Q, Huang JH, Liu SF, Ning Y, Yang Z, Zhao YJ, Shen ZY, Wang YJ (2011) Different molecular targets of Icariin on bMSCs in CORT and OVX-rats. Front Biosci 4:1224–1236Google Scholar
  9. Bláha L, Kopp R, Šimková K, Mareš J (2004) Oxidative stress biomarkers are modulated in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val.) exposed to microcystin-producing cyanobacterial water bloom. Acta Vet Brno 73(4):477–482Google Scholar
  10. Bo LY, Kipletting TE, Jing J, Jun ZY (2013) Quantitative determination of multiple components in Herba Epimedii using a single reference standard: a comparison of two methods. Anal Methods 5(15):3741–3746Google Scholar
  11. Chen CY (2009) Computational screening and design of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to block phosphodiesterase-5. J Molec Graph Model 28(3):261–269Google Scholar
  12. Chen C, Sha M, Yang S (1996) Quantitative changes of flavonoids in Epimedium koreanum Nakai in different collecting periods. China J Chin Mater Med 21(2):86Google Scholar
  13. Chen H, Zhang M, Xie B (2005) Components and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide conjugate from green tea. Food Chem 90(1):17–21Google Scholar
  14. Chen XJ, Guo BL, Li SP, Zhang QW, Tu PF, Wang YT (2007) Simultaneous determination of 15 flavonoids in Epimedium using pressurized liquid extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1163(1):96–104PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen Y, Zhao Y, Jia X, Ding A (2008a) Simultaneous determination of five main flavonoids in Herba Epimedii from different species by RP-HPLC. China Pharm 19(6):431Google Scholar
  16. Chen XJ, Ji H, Zhang QW, Tu PF, Wang YT, Guo BL, Li SP (2008b) A rapid method for simultaneous determination of 15 flavonoids in Epimedium using pressurized liquid extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography. J Pharm Biomed Anal 46(2):226–235PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen J, Xu Y, Wei G, Liao S, Zhang Y, Huang W, Yuan L, Wang Y (2015a) Chemotypic and genetic diversity in Epimedium sagittatum from different geographical regions of China. Phytochemistry 116:180–187PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen XJ, Tang ZH, Li XW, Xie CX, Lu JJ, Wang YT (2015b) Chemical constituents, quality control, and bioactivity of epimedii folium (Yinyanghuo). Am J Chin Med 43(05):783–834PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen YJ, Zheng HY, Huang XX, Han SX, Zhang DS, Ni JZ, He XY (2016a) Neuroprotective effects of Icariin on brain metabolism, mitochondrial functions, and cognition in triple-transgenic Alzheimer’s disease mice. CNS Neurosci Therap 22(1):63–73Google Scholar
  20. Chen SH, Wang XL, Zheng LZ, Dai Y, Zhang JY, Guo BL, Yang ZJ, Yao XS, Qin L (2016b) Comparative study of two types of herbal capsules with different Epimedium species for the prevention of ovariectomised-induced osteoporosis in rats. J Orthop Transl 4:14–27Google Scholar
  21. Chiu JH, Chen KK, Chien TM, Chiou WF, Chen CC, Wang JY, Lui WY, Wu CW (2006) Epimedium brevicornum Maxim extract relaxes rabbit corpus cavernosum through multitargets on nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling pathway. Int J Impot Res 18(4):335–342PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Cho NJ, Sung SH, Lee HS et al (1995) Anti-hepatotoxic activity of icariside II, a constituent of Epimedium koreanum. Arch Pharm Res 18:289. Scholar
  23. Cho WK, Kim H, Choi YJ, Yim NH, Yang HJ, Ma JY (2012) Epimedium koreanum Nakai water extract exhibits antiviral activity against porcine epidermic diarrhea virus in vitro and in vivo. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 29:2012Google Scholar
  24. Cho WK, Weeratunga P, Lee BH, Park JS, Kim CJ, Ma JY, Lee JS (2015) Epimedium koreanum Nakai displays broad spectrum of antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo by inducing cellular antiviral state. Viruses 7(1):352–377PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Choi HJ, Eun JS, Park YR, Kim DK, Li R, Moon WS, Park JM, Kim HS, Cho NP, Cho SD, Soh Y (2010) Ikarisoside A inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells via p38 kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathways. Eur J Pharmacol 601(1-3):171–178. Scholar
  26. Chu J, Zhang L, Ye CF, Zhao L, Ya BL, Li L (2008) Effects of Epimedium flavonoids on synapse related protein in brains of dementia transgenic mice. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 88(1):31–35Google Scholar
  27. Chung BH, Kim JD, Kim CK, Kim JH, Won MH, Lee HS, Dong MS, Ha KS, Kwon YG, Kim YM (2008) Icariin stimulates angiogenesis by activating the MEK/ERK-and PI3K/Akt/eNOS-dependent signal pathways in human endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 376(2):404–408PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Compilation CH. China herb compilation People’s medical publishing house. 1975.Google Scholar
  29. De Smet Y, Goetghebeur P, Wanke S, Asselman P, Samain MS (2012) Additional evidence for recent divergence of Chinese Epimedium (Berberidaceae) derived from AFLP, chloroplast and nuclear data supplemented with characterisation of leaflet pubescence. Plant Ecol Evolut 145(1):73–87Google Scholar
  30. Decne (1844) In Jacquem. Voy Bot Himal 9:8Google Scholar
  31. Dell’Agli M, Galli GV, Dal Cero E, Belluti F, Matera R, Zironi E, Pagliuca G, Bosisio E (2008) Potent inhibition of human phosphodiesterase-5 by icariin derivatives. J Nat Prod 71(9):1513–1517PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Dias AS, Porawski M, Alonso M, Marroni N, Collado PS, González-Gallego J (2005) Quercetin decreases oxidative stress, NF-κB activation, and iNOS overexpression in liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Nutr 135(10):2299–2304PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Diaz P, Jeong SC, Lee S, Khoo C, Koyyalamudi SR (2012) Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of selected medicinal plants and fungi containing phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Chin Med 7(1):26PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Ding L, Liang XG, Hu Y, Zhu DY, Lou YJ (2008) Involvement of p38MAPK and reactive oxygen species in icariin-induced cardiomyocyte differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells in vitro. Stem Cells Dev 17(4):751–760PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Dong ZY, Peng Y, Huang Y, Li X, Zhao LY, Zhang W (2010) Determination of contents of four components in the extract of Epimedium koreanum Nakai by RP-HPLC. J Shenyang Pharmaceut Univ 8:015Google Scholar
  36. Ellegren H, Galtier N (2016) Determinants of genetic diversity. Nat Rev Genet 17(7):422–433PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Fan Y, Liu J, Wang D, Hu Y, Yang S, Wang J, Guo L, Zhao X, Wang H, Jiang Y (2011) Epimedium polysaccharide and propolis flavone can synergistically inhibit the cellular infectivity of NDV and improve the curative effect of ND in chicken. Int J Biol Macromol 48(3):439–444PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Fang F, Xu MY, Jiang JJ, Xu YL, Wei HX (2003) Clinical and empirical research of “Chuan Ke Zhi” in treating childhood respiratory viral infection. Shanghai J Trad Chin Med 37:36–37Google Scholar
  39. Feng Zhu J, Jian Li Z, Sen Zhang G, Meng K, Yong Kuang W, Li J, Fu Zhou X, Juan Li R, Ling Peng H, Wen Dai C, Shen JK (2011) Icaritin shows potent anti-leukemia activity on chronic myeloid leukemia in vitro and in vivo by regulating MAPK/ERK/JNK and JAK2/STAT3/AKT signalings. PLoS One 6(8):e23720Google Scholar
  40. Frankham R (2005) Genetics and extinction. Biol Conserv 126(2):131–140Google Scholar
  41. Gao L, Tang Q, He X, Bi M (2012) Effect of icariin on learning and memory abilities and activity of cholinergic system of senescence-accelerated mice SAMP10. China J Chin Mater Med 37(14):2117–2121Google Scholar
  42. Guo BL, Wang CL, Chen JM, Xiao PG (1996) Determination of 9 Flavonoidsin 5 species of Epimedium recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeiaby HPLC [J]. Acta Pharm Sin:4Google Scholar
  43. Guo J, Li F, Wu Q, Gong Q, Lu Y, Shi J (2010) Protective effects of icariin on brain dysfunction induced by lipopolysaccharide in rats. Phytomedicine 17(12):950–955PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Guo Y, Zhang X, Meng J, Wang ZY (2011) An anticancer agent icaritin induces sustained activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway and inhibits growth of breast cancer cells. Eur J Pharmacol 658(2):114–122PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Han F, Lee IS (2017) A new flavonol glycoside from the aerial parts of Epimedium koreanum Nakai. Nat Prod Res 31(3):320–325PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Han S, Xie YY, Wang YM, Liang QL, Luo GA (2012) Comparative study on chemical quality of main species of Epimedium. Acta Pharm Sin 47(4):502–507Google Scholar
  47. He J, Wang Y, Duan F, Jiang H, Chen MF, Tang SY (2010a) Icaritin induces apoptosis of HepG2 cells via the JNK1 signaling pathway independent of the estrogen receptor. Planta Med 76(16):1834–1839PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. He XL, Zhou WQ, Bi MG, Du GH (2010b) Neuroprotective effects of icariin on memory impairment and neurochemical deficits in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. Brain Res 1334:73–83PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Hong X, Wang X, Yong EL, Gong Y (2009) Determination of breviflavone A and B in Epimedium herbs with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal 49(3):853–857PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Horie S, Suzuki K, Maki M (2012) Quantitative morphological analysis of populations in a hybrid zone of Epimedium diphyllum and E. sempervirens var. rugosum (Berberidaceae). Plant Ecol Evol 145(1):88–95Google Scholar
  51. Hsieh TP, Sheu SY, Sun JS, Chen MH, Liu MH (2010) Icariin isolated from Epimedium pubescens regulates osteoblasts anabolism through BMP-2, SMAD4, and Cbfa1 expression. Phytomedicine 17(6):414–423PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Hsieh TP, Sheu SY, Sun JS, Chen MH (2011) Icariin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption by suppression of MAPKs/NF-κB regulated HIF-1α and PGE 2 synthesis. Phytomedicine 18(2):176–185PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Huang XL, Wang W, Zhou YW (2006) Protective effect of Epimedium flavonoids injection on experimental myocardial infarction rats. Chin J Integr Tradition West Med 26(1):68–71Google Scholar
  54. Huang X, Zhu D, Lou Y (2007a) A novel anticancer agent, icaritin, induced cell growth inhibition, G 1 arrest and mitochondrial transmembrane potential drop in human prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells. Eur J Pharmacol 564(1):26–36PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Huang H, Liang M, Zhang X, Zhang C, Shen Z, Zhang W (2007b) Simultaneous determination of nine flavonoids and qualitative evaluation of Herba Epimedii by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. J Sep Sci 30(18):3207–3213PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Ikeda M, Ishima Y, VTG C, Ikeda T, Kinoshita R, Watanabe H, Ishida T, Otagiri M, Maruyama T (2017) Apoptosis induction of poly-S-nitrosated human serum albumin in resistant solid tumor under hypoxia can be restored by phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition. Nitric Oxide 69:28–34PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Indran IR, Liang RL, Min TE, Yong EL (2016) Preclinical studies and clinical evaluation of compounds from the genus Epimedium for osteoporosis and bone health. Pharmacol Therapeut 162:188–205Google Scholar
  58. Islam NM, Yoo HH, Lee MW, Dong MS, Park YI, Jeong HS, Kim DH (2008) Simultaneous quantitation of five flavonoid glycosides in herba Epimedii by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Phytochem Anal 19(1):71–77PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Jamal Z (2009) Biodiversity, ethnobotany and conservation status of the flora of Kaghan Valley Mansehra, NWFP Pakistan. Doctoral dissertation, Quaid-i-Azam University, IslamabadGoogle Scholar
  60. Jan S, Hamayun M, Khan SA, Ahmad N, Ahmad I, Wali S (2015) Plant diversity of Hindu Kush mountain region of Utror and Gabral, Northern Pakistan. Pak J Weed Sci Res 21(2):247–271Google Scholar
  61. Jia XB, Jin XY, Wang JJ, Shao ZZ, Lan XL (2010) Comparison of the content of main component in Epimedium koreanum decoction pieces from different manufactories. Chin Pharm 21:1006–1008Google Scholar
  62. Jiang J, Zhao BJ, Song J, Jia XB (2016) Pharmacology and clinical application of plants in Epimedium L. Chin Herb Med 8(1):12–23Google Scholar
  63. Jin X, Jia X, Sun E, Wang J, Chen Y, Cai B (2009) Research on variation regularity of five main flavonoids contents in Epimedium and processed Epimedium. China J Chin Mater Med 34(21):2738–2742Google Scholar
  64. Jin MS, Shi S, Zhang Y, Yan Y, Sun XD, Liu W, Liu HW (2010) Icariin-mediated differentiation of mouse adipose-derived stem cells into cardiomyocytes. Mol Cell Biochem 344(1-2):1–9PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Kang SH, Jeong SJ, Kim SH, Kim JH, Jung JH, Koh W, Kim JH, Kim DK, Chen CY, Kim SH (2012) Icariside II induces apoptosis in U937 acute myeloid leukemia cells: role of inactivation of STAT3-related signaling. PLoS One 7(4):e28706PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Kim SH, Ahn KS, Jeong SJ, Kwon TR, Jung JH, Yun SM, Han I, Lee SG, Kim DK, Kang M, Chen CY (2011) Janus activated kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway mediates icariside II-induced apoptosis in U266 multiple myeloma cells. Eur J Pharmacol 654(1):10–16PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. LanYing C, YunXiang L, YiFan Q, QiuMei Q (2014) A comparative research of plant morphology, the relative content of chlorophy II (SPAD value) and stomatal conductance of three transplanted barrenwort species. J South China Agricul Univ 35(2):110–114Google Scholar
  68. Lee S et al (2016) Antioxidative effects of extracts from different parts of Epimedium koreanum Nakai. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 45(2):188–193Google Scholar
  69. Li S, Dong P, Wang J, Zhang J, Gu J, Wu X, Quan Z (2010a) Icariin, a natural flavonol glycoside, induces apoptosis in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells via a ROS/JNK-dependent mitochondrial pathway. Cancer Lett 298(2):222–230PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Li F, Gong QH, Wu Q, Lu YF, Shi JS (2010b) Icariin isolated from Epimedium brevicornum Maxim attenuates learning and memory deficits induced by d-galactose in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 96(3):301–305PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Li MJ, Du MF, Chen QF (2011a) Study on RAPD genetic diversity of Genus Epimedium L. Seed 6:014Google Scholar
  72. Li HF, Guan XY, Ye M, Xiang C, Lin CH, Sun C, Guo DA (2011b) Qualitative and quantitative analyses of Epimedium wushanense by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Sep Sci 34(12):1437–1446PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Li X, Hu Y, He L, Wang S, Zhou H, Liu S (2012a) Icaritin inhibits T cell activation and prolongs skin allograft survival in mice. Int Immunopharmacol 13(1):1–7PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Li D, Yuan T, Zhang X, Xiao Y, Wang R, Fan Y, Zhang X (2012b) Icariin: a potential promoting compound for cartilage tissue engineering. Osteoarthr Cartil 20(12):1647–1656PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Li Q, Huai L, Zhang C, Wang C, Jia Y, Chen Y, Wang J (2013) Icaritin induces AML cell apoptosis via the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signal pathways. Int J Hematol 97(5):617–623PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Li C, Li Q, Mei Q, Lu T (2015) Pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetic properties of icariin, the major bioactive component in Herba Epimedii. Life Sci 126:57–68PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Liang HR, Vuorela P, Vuorela H, Hiltunen R (1997a) Isolation and immunomodulating effect of flavonol glycosides from Epimedium hunanense. Planta Med 63(04):316–319PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Liang HR, Siren H, Reikkola ML, Vuorela P, Vuorela H, Hiltunen R (1997b) Characterization of flavonoids in extracts from four species of Epimedium by micellarelectrokineticcapillary chromatography with diode-array detection. J Chromatogr Sci 35(3):117–125PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Liang W, Lin M, Li X, Li C, Gao B, Gan H, Yang Z, Lin X, Liao L, Yang M (2012a) Icariin promotes bone formation via the BMP-2/Smad4 signal transduction pathway in the hFOB 1.19 human osteoblastic cell line. Int J Mol Med 30(4):889–895PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Liang Q, Wei G, Chen J, Wang Y, Huang H (2012b) Variation of medicinal components in a unique geographical accession of horny goat weed Epimedium sagittatum Maxim (Berberidaceae). Molecules 17(11):13345–13356PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Liang Q, Zhang YJ, Xu YQ, Huang HW, Wang Y (2013) Morphological variations and genetic diversity of Epimedium sagittatum populations. Plant Sci J 31:422–427Google Scholar
  82. Lim JD, Seong ES, Choi KJ, Kim SK, Chung IM, Heo K, Yu CY (2000) Morphological characteristics and RAPD analysis of Epimedium spp. Korean J Med Crop Sci 8(2):102–108Google Scholar
  83. Lin Y, Zhang MS, Wu Q, Fang ZQ, Teng MD (2010) Content determination of icariin and Epimedin C in whole plant of Epimedium wushanense and Epimedium acuminatum Franch from Guizhou by RP-HPLC. Shenyang Pharmaceut Univ 27:453–456Google Scholar
  84. Liu CR, Xu LX (1984) Analysis of active ingredients of traditional Chinese herbal drug. Assay of icariin in Epimedium. Chin J Pharm Anal 4:81–84Google Scholar
  85. Liu Y, Zang H, Zhang H, Chen J (2005) Effect of Herba Epimedii Flavone on expression of OPG and RANKL in rat osteoblasts. J Chin Med Mater 28(12):1076–1078Google Scholar
  86. Liu HJ, Wang XP, Lin J, Yu YC, Jiang XQ, Zhang XL, Zhou ZT, Zhang WD (2006a) The effect of icariin and astragalosid I on the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells. J Chin Med Mater 29(10):1062–1065Google Scholar
  87. Liu TZ, Chen CY, Yiin SJ, Chen CH, Cheng JT, Shih MK, Wang YS, Chern CL (2006b) Molecular mechanism of cell cycle blockage of hepatoma SK-Hep-1 cells by Epimedin C through suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and increased expression of CDK inhibitors p21 Cip1 and p27 Kip1. Food Chem Toxicol 44(2):227–235PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Liu JJ, Li SP, Wang YT (2006c) Optimization for quantitative determination of four flavonoids in Epimedium by capillary zone electrophoresis coupled with diode array detection using central composite design. J Chromatogr A 1103(2):344–349PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Liu B, Zhang H, Xu C, Yang G, Tao J, Huang J, Wu J, Duan X, Cao Y, Dong J (2011) Neuroprotective effects of icariin on corticosterone-induced apoptosis in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Brain Res 1375:59–67PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Liu W, Yin D, Liu J, Li N (2014) Genetic diversity and structure of Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) Ying in the Qinling Mountains, China. PLoS One 9(10):e110500PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Lone SA, Kushwaha M, Wani A, Kumar A, Gupta AP, Hassan QP, Chandra S, Gupta S (2017) Genetic diversity, LCMS based chemical fingerprinting and antioxidant activity of Epimedium elatum Morr & Decne. J Appl Res Med Aromat Plants 5:72–81Google Scholar
  92. Lubell JD, Brand MH (2005) Division size and timing influence propagation of four species of Epimedium L. Hortic Sci 40(5):1444–1447Google Scholar
  93. Luo Y, Nie J, Gong QH, Lu YF, Wu Q, Shi JS (2007) Protective effects of icariin against learning and memory deficits induced by aluminium in rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 34(8):792–795PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Ma JQ, Ma XQ, Zhang XY (2009) Mechanism of resisting exercise fatigue by Epimedium flavones in mice. Chin J New Drugs 18:553–555Google Scholar
  95. Ma H, He X, Yang Y, Li M, Hao D, Jia Z (2011) The genus Epimedium: an ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review. J Ethnopharmacol 134(3):519–541PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Mahboubi M, Kazempour N, Hosseini H, Mahboubi M (2013) Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Epimedium pinnatum. Herba Polonica 59(2):24–34. Scholar
  97. Meng X, Zeng N, Zhang Y, Lan X, Ren C, Cheng L (1996) Studies on effect of active constituents of Herba Epimedii on hypothalamic monoamines neurotransmitter and other brain functions in aging rats. China J Chin Mater Med 21(11):683–685Google Scholar
  98. Miner BG, Sultan SE, Morgan SG, Padilla DK, Relyea RA (2005) Ecological consequences of phenotypic plasticity. Trends Ecol Evol 20(12):685–692PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Ming Feng DU (2008) DNA genetic diversity of genus Epimedium L. and its phylogeny, Master Thesis. Guizhou Normal University, China.[In Chinese]Google Scholar
  100. Ming LG, Chen KM, Xian CJ (2013) Functions and action mechanisms of flavonoids genistein and icariin in regulating bone remodeling. J Cell Physiol 228(3):513–521PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Ming-Jun LI (2011) Establishment of DNA fingerprints on Epimedium L. J Anhui Agricul Sci 18:037Google Scholar
  102. Morren C, Decaisne J (1834) Observations sur la Xore du Japon suivies de la monographie du genre Epimedium. Anal Sci Nature Botaniq 2:347–361Google Scholar
  103. Mu-Dan LI, Xu SH, Zhang YJ, Ping GU (2009) Optimization of ISSR-PCR system in Epimedium acuminatum Franch. J Mount Agricul Biol 6:008Google Scholar
  104. Nakai R, Shoyama Y, Shiraishi S (1996) Genetic characterization of Epimedium species using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) diagnosis. Biol Pharm Bull 19(1):67–70PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Naseer S, Lone SH, Lone JA, Khuroo MA, Bhat KA (2015) LC–MS guided isolation, quantification and antioxidant evaluation of bioactive principles from Epimedium elatum. J Chromatogr B 989:62–70Google Scholar
  106. Nasir, E., Ali, S.I., Fl. Pakistan. Ther Ber 87, 1-31 1980–2005University of Karachi, KarachiGoogle Scholar
  107. Nautiyal BP, Prakash V, Chauhan RS, Purohit H, Nautiyal MC (2001) Assessment of germinability, productivity and cost benefit analysis of Picrorhiza kurrooa cultivated at lower altitudes. Curr Sci 81(5):579–585Google Scholar
  108. Nurul I, Lee SK, Jeong SY, Kim DH, Jin CB, Yoo HH (2009) Quantitative and pattern recognition analyses for the quality evaluation of Herba Epimedii by HPLC. Bull Kor Chem Soc 30(1):137–144Google Scholar
  109. Palacio-López K, Beckage B, Scheiner S, Molofsky J (2015) The ubiquity of phenotypic plasticity in plants: a synthesis. Ecol Evol 5(16):3389–3400PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Pan J, Guo B (2016) Effects of light intensity on the growth, photosynthetic characteristics, and flavonoid content of Epimedium pseudowushanense BL Guo. Molecules 21(11):1475Google Scholar
  111. Pei BLGLK, Pei-Gen XIAO (2008) Further research on taxonomic significance of flavonoids in Epimedium (Berberidaceae). J Syst Evol 46(6):874–885Google Scholar
  112. Pei LK, Huang WH, He TG, Guo BL (2007) Systematic studies on quality of main species of Herba epimedii. China J Chin Mater Med 32(21):2217–2222Google Scholar
  113. Peng YD, Huang WH, Guo BL (2007) Research on quality of Epimedium extract in market. China J Chin Mater Med 32(18):1858–1861Google Scholar
  114. Perveen A, Qaiser M (2010) Pollen flora of Pakistan–LXV. Berberidaceae. Pak J Bot 42(1):1–6Google Scholar
  115. Pharmacopoeia Commission of P. R. China (2010) Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, vol I. China Medico-Pharmaceutical Science & Technology Publishing House, Beijing, p 306Google Scholar
  116. Pietta PG (2000) Flavonoids as antioxidants. J Nat Prod 63(7):1035–1042PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. Quan QM, Wu W, Li YX, Cai QR (2010) Variation in icariin and flavonoid contents of Barrenwort species. J Med Plant Res 4(6):471–476Google Scholar
  118. Quan QM, Fang ZL, Wu W, Li YX (2011) Comparative analysis of morphological characteristics and effective composition content of wild and cultivated Epimedium pubescens and Epimedium wushanense (Berberidaceae). J Med Plant Res 5(29):6523–6527Google Scholar
  119. Rafiq RA (1992–1995) The flora of Palas valley and plant conservation priorities. Report on the botanical studies in Palas valley. Report prepared for Himalayan Jungle Project, Palas Valley, KohistanGoogle Scholar
  120. Sarwat M, Nabi G, Das S, Srivastava PS (2012) Molecular markers in medicinal plant biotechnology: past and present. Crit Rev Biotechnol 32(1):74–92PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. Sharma BM, Jamwal PS (1988) Flora of upper liddar valley of Kashmir Himalaya. J Econ Taxon Bot 1Google Scholar
  122. She BR, Qin DN, Wang Z, She Y (2003) Effects of flavonoids from herba epimedii on the reproductive system in male rats. Chin J Androl 9:294–296Google Scholar
  123. Shen P, Guo BL, Gong Y, Hong DY, Hong Y, Yong EL (2007) Taxonomic, genetic, chemical and estrogenic characteristics of Epimedium species. Phytochemistry 68(10):1448–1458PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Sheng MY, Chen QF, Yang QX (2008) Variation in icariin and flavonoid contents of barrenwort accessions native to Guizhou, China. Biochem Syst Ecol 36(9):719–723Google Scholar
  125. Sheng M, Chen Q, Wang L, Tian X (2011) Hybridization among Epimedium (Berberidaceae) species native to China. Sci Hortic 128(3):342–351Google Scholar
  126. Shin YS, Zhao C, Zhang LT, Park JK (2015) Current status and clinical studies of oriental herbs in sexual medicine in Korea. World J Men’s Health 33(2):62–72Google Scholar
  127. Singh G, Kachroo P (1987) Forest flora of Srinagar and plants of neighbourhood. Delhi: Periodical Expert Book Agency x, 278p.-illus., map. En Plant records Geog, 6Google Scholar
  128. Sofi SN, Shakeel-u-Rehman QPH, Lone SH, Bhat HM, Bhat KA (2014) Isolation, identification, and simultaneous quantification of five major flavonoids in Epimedium elatum by high performance liquid chromatography. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 37(8):1104–1113Google Scholar
  129. Song YH, Cai H, Gu N, Qian CF, Cao SP, Zhao ZM (2011) Icariin attenuates cardiac remodelling through down-regulating myocardial apoptosis and matrix metalloproteinase activity in rats with congestive heart failure. J Pharm Pharmacol 63(4):541–549. Scholar
  130. Song J, Shu L, Zhang Z, Tan X, Sun E, Jin X, Chen Y, Jia X (2012) Reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial pathway is involved in Baohuoside I-induced apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer. Chemico-Biol Interact 199(1):9–17Google Scholar
  131. Stearn WT, Shaw J, Green PS, Mathew B (2002) Genus Epimedium and other herbaceous Berberidaceae. Timber Press, OregonGoogle Scholar
  132. Stewart RR (1972) Ann. Cat. Vas. Pl. West Pakistan and Kashmir. p 281Google Scholar
  133. Sultan P, Shawl AS, Rehman S, Ahmed SF, Ramteke PW (2010) Molecular characterization and marker based chemotaxonomic studies of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle. Fitoterapia 81(4):243–247PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. Sun C, Liang GY (2011) HPLC simultaneous determination of epimedin C and icariin in 21 species of Epimedium. Chin J Pharmaceut Anal 5:931–934Google Scholar
  135. Sun Y, Fung KP, Leung PC, Shi D, Shaw PC (2004) Characterization of medicinal Epimedium species by 5S rRNA gene spacer sequencing. Planta Med 70(03):287–288PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. Sun Y, Fung KP, Leung PC, Shaw PC (2005) A phylogenetic analysis of Epimedium (Berberidaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol 35(1):287–291PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. Sun X, Sun X, Jin X, Zhang X, Liu C, Lei L, Jin L, Liu H (2011) Icariin induces mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation into beating functional cardiomyocytes. Mol Cell Biochem 349(1–2):117–123PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. Sun L, Peng Q, Qu L, Gong L, Si J (2015) Anticancer agent icaritin induces apoptosis through caspase-dependent pathways in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Mol Med Rep 11(4):3094–3100PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. Sze SC, Tong Y, Ng TB, Cheng CL, Cheung HP (2010) Herba Epimedii: anti-oxidative properties and its medical implications. Molecules 15(11):7861–7870PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. Tali BA, Ganie AH, Nawchoo IA, Wani AA, Reshi ZA (2015) Assessment of threat status of selected endemic medicinal plants using IUCN regional guidelines: a case study from Kashmir Himalaya. J Nat Conserv 23:80–89Google Scholar
  141. Tan HL, Chan KG, Pusparajah P, Saokaew S, Duangjai A, Lee LH, Goh BH (2016) Anti-cancer properties of the naturally occurring aphrodisiacs: icariin and its derivatives. Front Pharmacol 7Google Scholar
  142. Tantry MA, Dar JA, Idris A, Akbar S, Shawl AS (2012) Acylated flavonol glycosides from Epimedium elatum, a plant endemic to the Western Himalayas. Fitoterapia 83(4):665–670PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. Tao F, Qian C, Guo W, Luo Q, Xu Q, Sun Y (2013) Inhibition of Th1/Th17 responses via suppression of STAT1 and STAT3 activation contributes to the amelioration of murine experimental colitis by a natural flavonoid glucoside icariin. Biochem Pharmacol 85(6):798–807PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. The Plant List (2013). Version 1.1. Published on the Internet; Accessed 1 Jan 2013.
  145. Tong JS, Zhang QH, Huang X, Fu XQ, Qi ST, Wang YP, Hou Y, Sheng J, Sun QY (2011) Icaritin causes sustained ERK1/2 activation and induces apoptosis in human endometrial cancer cells. PLoS One 6(3):e16781PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. Wang XF, Wang J (2014) Icaritin suppresses the proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells in vitro by increasing apoptosis and decreasing MMP expression. Acta Pharmacol Sin 35(4):531–539PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. Wang XM, Fu H, Liu GX (1996) Effect of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Lyciionmito- chondrial DNA deletion, activity of respiratory chain enzyme complexes and ATP synthesis in aged rats. J Peking Univ Health Sci 21:683–685Google Scholar
  148. Wang F, Zheng Y, Xiao HB, Zhou M, Liu YX, Li GQ (2001) Effect of administration of herba Epimedium at the optimal time levels on sexual hormones. J Tradit Chin Med 42:619–621Google Scholar
  149. Wang MQ, Bi ZM, Li P, Ji H, Cheng FL (2003) Determination of epimedin C and icariin in Herba Epimedii by HPLC. China J Chin Mater Med 28(11):1025–1027Google Scholar
  150. Wang GJ, Tsai TH, Lin LC (2007) Prenylflavonol, acylated flavonol glycosides and related compounds from Epimedium sagittatum. Phytochemistry 68(19):2455–2464PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. Wang Y, Dong H, Zhu M, Ou Y, Zhang J, Luo H, Luo R, Wu J, Mao M, Liu X, Zhang J (2010) Icariin exterts negative effects on human gastric cancer cell invasion and migration by vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein via Rac1 pathway. Eur J Pharmacol 635(1):40–48PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. Wang Q, Hao J, Pu J, Zhao L, Lü Z, Hu J, Yu Q, Wang Y, Xie Y, Li G (2011) Icariin induces apoptosis in mouse MLTC-10 Leydig tumor cells through activation of the mitochondrial pathway and down-regulation of the expression of piwil4. Int J Oncol 39(4):973PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. Wang J, He L, Lu J (2013) Active component determination of Epimedium koreanum from different growing areas of Liaoning Province [J]. Liaoning Forestry. Sci Technol 2:004Google Scholar
  154. Wang B, Yan F, Cai L (2014a) Anti-fatigue properties of icariin from Epimedium brevicornum. Biomed Res 25(3):297–302Google Scholar
  155. Wang L, Waltenberger B, Pferschy-Wenzig EM, Blunder M, Liu X, Malainer C, Blazevic T, Schwaiger S, Rollinger JM, Heiss EH, Schuster D (2014b) Natural product agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ): a review. Biochem Pharmacol 92(1):73–89PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. Wang L, Li Y, Guo Y, Ma R, Fu M, Niu J, Gao S, Zhang D (2016) Herba Epimedii: an ancient Chinese herbal medicine in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Curr Pharmaceut Design 22(3):328–349Google Scholar
  157. Ward BJ (2004) The plant Hunter’s garden: the new explorers and their discoveries. Timber Press, Oregon, p 134Google Scholar
  158. Wei Y, Liu B, Sun J, Lv Y, Luo Q, Liu F, Dong J (2015) Regulation of Th17/Treg function contributes to the attenuation of chronic airway inflammation by icariin in ovalbumin-induced murine asthma model. Immunobiology 220(6):789–797PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  159. Wo Y, Zhu D, Yu Y, Lou Y (2008) Involvement of NF-κB and AP-1 activation in icariin promoted cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. Eur J Pharmacol 586(1):59–66PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. Wu H, Lien EJ, Lien LL (2003) Chemical and pharmacological investigations of Epimedium species: a survey. In progress in drug research. Birkhäuser, Basel, pp 1–57Google Scholar
  161. Wu CS, Guo BL, Sheng YX, Zhang JL (2008) Simultaneous determination of seven flavonoids in Epimedium by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method. Chin Chem Lett 19(3):329–332Google Scholar
  162. Wu JF, Dong JC, Xu CQ (2009) Effects of icariin on inflammation model stimulated by lipopolysaccharide in vitro and in vivo. Chin J Integr Trad West Med 29(4):330–334Google Scholar
  163. Wu H, Zha ZG, Yao P (2010) Experimental study of icariin in inducing bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 30(4):410–415Google Scholar
  164. Wu J, Guan M, Wong PF, Yu H, Dong J, Xu J (2012a) Icariside II potentiates paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in human melanoma A375 cells by inhibiting TLR4 signaling pathway. Food Chem Toxicol 50(9):3019–3024PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  165. Wu B, Chen Y, Huang J, Ning Y, Bian Q, Shan Y, Cai W, Zhang X, Shen Z (2012b) Icariin improves cognitive deficits and activates quiescent neural stem cells in aging rats. J Ethnopharmacol 142(3):746–753PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  166. Wu J, Xu J, Eksioglu EA, Chen X, Zhou J, Fortenbery N, Wei S, Dong J (2013) Icariside II induces apoptosis of melanoma cells through the downregulation of survival pathways. Nutr Cancer 65(1):110–117PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  167. Xia AJ, Huang HZ, Gao G, Zhang H, Zhu ZY, Chai YF (2009) Simultaneous determination of five flavone constituents in Epimedium Brevicornum by HPLC [J]. J Pharm Pract 4:014Google Scholar
  168. Xie J, Sun W (2010) Separation and simultaneous quantification of seven prenyl flavones from organs of different epimedii using gradient reverse-phase HPLC. Nat Prod Res Dev 22:820–825Google Scholar
  169. Xie JP, Wang ZD, Sun WJ (2007a) The investigation of epimedin C and icariin in the leaves of 9 species of Epimedium. Chin Tradit Herb Drug 38:613–614Google Scholar
  170. Xie JP, Xu DB, Sun WJ (2007b) RP-HPLC determination four components in E. wushanense TS Ying. Chin J Pharmaceut Anal 27(3):437Google Scholar
  171. Xie PS, Yan YZ, Guo BL, Lam CW, Chui SH, Yu QX (2010) Chemical pattern-aided classification to simplify the intricacy of morphological taxonomy of Epimedium species using chromatographic fingerprinting. J Pharm Biomed Anal 52(4):452–460PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. Xie JP, Xiang JM, Wang HD (2011) Effects of different processed products on the main ingredient of epimedin C and icariin of Epimedium wushanense [J]. Chin J Pharmaceut Anal 4:016Google Scholar
  173. Xu Y, Li Z, Wang Y, Huang H (2007) Allozyme diversity and population genetic structure of three medicinal Epimedium species from Hubei. J Genet Genom 34(1):56–71Google Scholar
  174. Xu Y, Huang H, Li Z, Wang Y (2008) Development of 12 novel microsatellite loci in a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, Epimedium brevicornum and cross-amplification in other related taxa. Conserv Genet 9(4):949–952Google Scholar
  175. Xu CQ, Liu BJ, Wu JF, Xu YC, Duan XH, Cao YX, Dong JC (2010) Icariin attenuates LPS-induced acute inflammatory responses: involvement of PI3K/Akt and NF-κB signaling pathway. Eur J Pharmacol 642(1):146–153PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. Xu Y, Li Z, Yuan L, Zhang X, Lu D, Huang H, Wang Y (2013a) Variation of epimedins A–C and icariin in ten representative populations of Epimedium brevicornu Maxim., and implications for utilization. Chem Biodivers 10(4):711–721PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. Xu YQ, Cai WZ, Hu SF, Huang XH, Ge F, Wang Y (2013b) Morphological variation of non-glandular hairs in cultivated Epimedium sagittatum (Berberidaceae) populations and implications for taxonomy. Biodivers Sci 21:185–196Google Scholar
  178. Xu YQ, Xu Y, Shi HJ, Hu SF, Ge F (2014) Taxonomic research on Epimedium sagittatum species complex and discussion. Chin Trad Herb Drug 22:029Google Scholar
  179. Xu F, Ding Y, Guo Y, Liu B, Kou Z, Xiao W, Zhu J (2016) Anti-osteoporosis effect of Epimedium via an estrogen-like mechanism based on a system-level approach. J Ethnopharmacol 177:148–160PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  180. Xuemei Z, Zengli F, Qiumei Q (2016) Impact of simulated warming on growthand floral characteristics of two varieties of medicinal Epimedium. Braz Arch Biol Technol 59(SPE)Google Scholar
  181. Yan ZK, Qiu H (2005) Antimicrobial tests of Icariin. China Food Additives 4:65–68Google Scholar
  182. Yan-Ying C, Yun-Xiang L, Qiu-Mei Q et al (2012) Genetic diversity and relationship among 7 species of genus epimedium in Sichuan revealed by ISSR Analysis[J]. Bull Bot Res 32(2):208–212Google Scholar
  183. Yang X, Zhang YH, Ding CF, Yan ZZ, Du J (2007) Extract from Epimedium brevi-cornum Maxim. against injury to function of human sperm membrane in vitro. Chin J Clin Pharmacol Therapeut 12:663–667Google Scholar
  184. Yao R, Zhang L, Li X, Li L (2010) Effects of Epimedium flavonoids on proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in vitro. Neurol Res 32(7):736–742PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  185. Yao HM, Dong YH, Wu ZJ, Jiang RP (2012) An RP-HPLC determination of epimedin A, B, C and icraiin in self-emulsifying soft capsules of Epimedium brevicornum extracts [J]. Chin J New Drug 6:028Google Scholar
  186. Yasukawa K, Ko SK, Whang WK (2016) Inhibitory effects of the aerial parts of Epimedium koreanum on TPA-induced inflammation and tumour promotion in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin. J Pharm Nutr Sci 6(2):35–42Google Scholar
  187. Yong NIE, Li Y-X, Ma Y-H, Quan Q-M (2010) Comparison of morphological characteristics and biomass allocation of module in medicinal plants of Epimedium from Sichuan [J]. Bull Botan Res 4Google Scholar
  188. Yousaf Z, Hu WE, Zhang YA, Zeng S, Wang Y (2015) Systematic validation of medicinally important genus Epimedium species based on microsatellite markers. Pak J Bot 44(2):477–484Google Scholar
  189. Yu J, Ding C-b, Zhang L, Yang R, Zhou Y, Tang L (2011) Identification of the genus Epimedium with DNA barcodes. J Med Plant Res 5(28):6413–6417Google Scholar
  190. Yu X, Song J, Xiong Z, Li F (2010) Simultaneous assay of epimedin A epimedin B, epimedin C and icariin in herba epimedii by QAMS. China J Chin Mater Med 35(24):3310–3313Google Scholar
  191. Yuan D, Wang H, He H, Jia L, He Y, Wang T, Zeng X, Li Y, Li S, Zhang C (2014) Protective effects of total flavonoids from Epimedium on the male mouse reproductive system against cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative injury by up-regulating the expressions of SOD3 and GPX1. Phytother Res 28(1):88–97PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  192. Zeng N, Meng X, Zhang Y, Lai X, Zheng J, Chen L, Ren C (1997) Antioxidative effect of constituents of herba Epimedii (ESPS). China J Chin Mater Med 22(1):46–48Google Scholar
  193. Zeng S, Xiao G, Guo J, Fei Z, Xu Y, Roe BA, Wang Y (2010) Development of a EST dataset and characterization of EST-SSRs in a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. Et Zucc.) Maxim. BMC Genomics 11(1):1Google Scholar
  194. Zeng-li FA (2012) Research advances in the pharmacological effects of HERBA EPIMEDII [J]. J Anhui Agricul Sci 17:029Google Scholar
  195. Zhai Y, Ge B, Ma H, Ming L, Li Z, Cheng G, Zhou J, Chen K (2010) Icariin promotes osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells in vitro. China J Chin Mater Med 35(23):3219–3222Google Scholar
  196. Zhai M, He L, Ju X, Shao L, Li G, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Zhao H (2015) Icariin acts as a potential agent for preventing cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. Cell Biochem Biophys 72(2):589–597PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  197. Zhang ZB, Yang QT (2006) The testosterone mimetic properties of icariin. Asian J Androl 8(5):601–605PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  198. Zhang Y, Xiao CH, Meng XL (1995) Flavonoids contents determined and resources utilized of 8 species for sale native to Sichuan. Chin J Chin Mater Med 20:201–202Google Scholar
  199. Zhang ML, Uhink CH, Kadereit JW (2007a) Phylogeny and biogeography of Epimedium/Vancouveria (Berberidaceae): Western North American-East Asian disjunctions, the origin of European mountain plant taxa, and East Asian species diversity. Syst Bot 32(1):81–92Google Scholar
  200. Zhang H, Gao X, Lu DY, Wang Y (2007b) Simultaneous determination of epimedin A, B, C and icariin in herba epimedii by high performance liquid chromatography. J Instrum Anal 26(2):198Google Scholar
  201. Zhang HF, Yang TS, Li ZZ, Wang Y (2008) Simultaneous extraction of epimedin a, B, C and icariin from Herba Epimedii by ultrasonic technique. Ultrason Sonochem 15(4):376–385PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  202. Zhang RX, Jia ZP, Li FS, Li MX, Qiu JG (2009) Antihypoxic effect of total flavonoids of Herba Epimedii on hypoxia model mice. J Chin Med Mat 32:1736–1738Google Scholar
  203. Zhang D, Zhang J, Fong C, Yao X, Yang M (2012) Herba epimedii flavonoids suppress osteoclastic differentiation and bone resorption by inducing G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Biochimie 94(12):2514–2522PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  204. Zhang DC, Liu JL, Ding YB, Xia JG, Chen GY (2013a) Icariin potentiates the antitumor activity of gemcitabine in gallbladder cancer by suppressing NF-κB. Acta Pharmacol Sin 34(2):301–308PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  205. Zhang W, Chen H, Wang Z, Lan G, Zhang L (2013b) Comparative studies on antioxidant activities of extracts and fractions from the leaves and stem of Epimedium koreanum Nakai. J Food Sci Technol 50(6):1122–1129PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  206. Zhang L, Shen C, Chu J, Zhang R, Li Y, Li L (2014a) Icariin decreases the expression of APP and BACE-1 and reduces the β-amyloid burden in an APP transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Int J Biol Sci 10(2):181–191PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  207. Zhang Y, Yang L, Chen J, Sun W, Wang Y (2014b) Taxonomic and phylogenetic analysis of Epimedium L. based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms. Sci Hortic 170:284–292Google Scholar
  208. Zhang L, Zhang Z, Luo Q, Lu H, Liang Y (2014c) Evaluation and prediction of the antioxidant activity of Epimedium from multi-wavelength chromatographic fingerprints and chemometrics. Analyt Method 6(4):1036–1043Google Scholar
  209. Zhang D, Wang Z, Sheng C, Peng W, Hui S, Gong W, Chen S (2015) Icariin prevents amyloid Beta-induced apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt pathway in PC-12 cells. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015:235265PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  210. Zhang Y, Du L, Liu A, Chen J, Wu L, Hu W, Zhang W, Kim K, Lee SC, Yang TJ, Wang Y (2016) The complete chloroplast genome sequences of five Epimedium species: lights into phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses. Front Plant Sci 7:306PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  211. ZhengZheng Z, JianGuang L, BaoLin G, LingYi K (2010) Analysis of bioactive flavonoids and resources research of main Herba Epimedii species from different origins. J China Pharmaceut Univ 41(2):146–150Google Scholar
  212. Zhou T, Zhang X, Guo L, Lin G, Jiang W, Ai Q, Zhang C (2012) Variation of icariin and total flavonoid of Epimedium acuminatum in different parts and habitats. China J Chin Mater Med 37(13):1917–1921Google Scholar
  213. Zhou YX, Zhang HR, Fan DD (2013) HPLC analysis of different parts in Epimedium wushanense from different regions. Chem Eng 2:6–8Google Scholar
  214. Zhou T, Xiong HX, Lin G, Jiang WK, Guo LP, Lei M, Chen CY, Zhang XB (2014) Morphological character of growth cycle for Epimedium acuminatim and icariin content analysis. China J Chin Mater Med 39(1):48–51Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sajad Ahmad Lone
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ajai Prakash Gupta
    • 2
    • 3
  • Malik Muzafar Manzoor
    • 1
  • Pooja Goyal
    • 1
    • 2
  • Qazi Pervaiz Hassan
    • 2
    • 4
  • Suphla Gupta
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Plant Biotechnology DivisionCSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative MedicineJammuIndia
  2. 2.Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR)New DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Quality Control and Quality Assurance DivisionCSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative MedicineJammuIndia
  4. 4.Plant Biotechnology DivisionCSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative MedicineSrinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations