The Impact of Social Policy on Democratic Citizenship
Using multilevel regression models with cross-level interactions between income and social expenditures, the hypotheses on how the welfare state can shape democratic citizenship is empirically tested. Voting, political interest, political trust, and satisfaction with democracy are all found to be higher in countries where a policy priority on working-age adults and families exists. More nuanced patterns are, however, found with regard to the social gradient in democratic citizenship: while larger welfare states appear to promote greater political equality across some aspects of democratic citizenship, the gap between the richest and poorest citizens remains even in generous welfare states with regard to political trust.
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