Empirical Approaches to the Study of Democratic Citizens and Welfare States

  • Jennifer Shore
Part of the Palgrave Studies in European Political Sociology book series (PSEPS)


This chapter provides a discussion of the debates and challenges involved with measuring the welfare state as well as a brief foray into multilevel modeling techniques. These essential research design aspects lay the groundwork for the quantitative empirical analyses to follow and guide the reader through issues and topics related to concept-measurement consistency and data and measurement of welfare states. In a second step, the substantive and logical reasoning behind multilevel or hierarchical regression models is discussed with regard to the cross-national study of political attitudes and behaviors.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer Shore
    • 1
  1. 1.Mannheim Centre for European Social ResearchUniversity of MannheimMannheimGermany

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