Generalized Vertical Coordinates

  • Lars Petter RøedEmail author
Part of the Springer Textbooks in Earth Sciences, Geography and Environment book series (STEGE)


So far, we have only used the Cartesian geopotential coordinate system consisting of three orthogonal spatial coordinates xyz. Relaxing the orthogonality between the vertical coordinate z and the two horizontal coordinates xy can make it much easier to analyze phenomena in atmospheres and oceans, and devise compelling models of them. The development of such non-orthogonal coordinate systems remains at the forefront of research in numerical modeling. The purpose of this chapter is, therefore, to present the salient issues relating to these generalized vertical coordinates.


Vertical Coordinate System Montgomery Potential Individual Derivatives Hybrid Coordinate Model Terrain-following Coordinates 
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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeosciencesUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  2. 2.Norwegian Meteorological InstituteOsloNorway

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