Advertisement

The United Kingdom

  • Ellen Kitson-Reynolds
  • Alison TrenerryEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Midwifery education and practice across the four countries of the United Kingdom (UK) (England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland) is diverse and complex when considering the healthcare system as a whole. The Nursing and Midwifery Council regulates midwifery as a profession across the UK. Regulation and, hence, standards are undergoing change in light of legislative change due to the report of system failures within sections of the health service. These changes are occurring alongside the UK’s adjustment in allegiance with the European Union through ‘Brexit’. For many, this means uncertainty for the immediate and long-term future nationally. This will have an effect upon the delivery of healthcare regulation for all areas of health, financial security workforce provision and the delivery of education to future midwifery students. Whilst some may perceive this to be an anxious time for the newly qualified midwife, others seek out the opportunities that a period of change and uncertainty bring. This is the time for newly qualified midwives to carve the future of the profession and for themselves in terms of career aspirations and development.

Keywords

Midwives Midwifery practice Transition to practice New graduates Initial registration Professional socialisation Fit for first post Preceptorship 

References

  1. Alred G, Garvey B. Mentoring pocket book. 3rd ed. Alresford: Management Pocket Books LTD; 2010.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews A. The balls in your court. 2009. Available via https://www.rcm.org.uk/news-views-and-analysis/analysis/the-ball%E2%80%99s-in-your-court. Accessed 2 Sep 2017.
  3. Avis M, Malik M, Fraser DM. Practicing under your own pin a description of the transition experiences of newly qualified midwives. J Nurs Manag. 2013;21(8):1061–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ball T, Washbrook M. Birth rate plus a framework for workforce planning and decision making for midwifery services. Cheshire: Books for Midwives Press; 1996.Google Scholar
  5. Banfield P, Roberts C. The early detection of maternal deterioration in pregnancy. North Wales: The Health Foundation; 2015.Google Scholar
  6. Barber T, Rogers J, Marsh S. The birth places choices project: phase one. Br J Midwifery. 2014;14(10):609–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barker K. Newly qualified midwives be confident and competent. Br J Midwifery. 2014;22(9):614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Begley CM. A study of student midwives’ experiences during their 2-year education programme. Midwifery. 1999;15(3):194–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Biro MA, Waldenstrom U, Brown S, Pannifex JH. Satisfaction with team midwifery care for low and high risk women: a randomised controlled trial. Birth. 2003;30(1):1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Birth Choices UK. Historical statistics–normal birth. 2010. Available via http://www.birthchoiceuk.com/Professionals/Frame.htm. Accessed 6 Feb 2018.
  11. Brennan E. Towards resilience and wellbeing in nurses. Br J Nurs. 2017;26(1):43–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Care Quality Commission. How we do our job. 2017. Available via http://www.cqc.org.uk/what-we-do/how-we-do-our-job/how-we-do-our-job. Accessed 6 Feb 2018.
  13. Clark T, Holmes S. Fit for practice? An exploration of the development of newly qualified nurses using focus groups. Int J Nurs Stud. 2007;44(7):1210–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cowell B, Wainright D. Behind the blue door. The history of the Royal College of Midwives 1881–1981. London: Baillière Tindall; 1981.Google Scholar
  15. Darzi A. High quality care for all: NHS next stage review final report. Crown Copyright, Surrey; 2008.Google Scholar
  16. Davis D, Fourer M, Clements V, et al. Self-reported confidence of newly qualified midwives before and after their first year of practice, Sydney, Australia. Women Birth. 2012;25(3):1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Department of Health. The changing childbirth report. London: HMSO; 1993.Google Scholar
  18. Department of Health. Midwifery 2020: delivering expectations. London: DH; 2010.Google Scholar
  19. Department of Health. Liberating the NHS: legislative framework and the next steps. London: Crown Copyright; 2010a.Google Scholar
  20. Department of Health. Preceptorship framework for newly registered nurses, midwives and allied health professionals. London: Crown Copyright; 2010b.Google Scholar
  21. Department of Health. NHS constitution last updated 2015. London: Crown Copyright; 2012.Google Scholar
  22. Department of Health. The nursing and midwifery council amendments to modernise midwifery regulation and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of fitness to practise processes. Leeds: The Department of Health; 2017.Google Scholar
  23. Edmonstone J. Personal resilience for healthcare staff. Florida: CRC Press; 2013.Google Scholar
  24. Emmerson C, Frayne C, Goodman A. Pressures in UK health care. Challenges for the NHS. 2000. Available via http://www.ifs.org.uk/health/nhsspending.pdf. Accessed 2 Aug 2007.
  25. Fenwick J, Hammond A, Raymond J, et al. Surviving not thriving: a qualitative study of newly qualified midwives’ experience of their transition to practice. J Clin Nur. 2012;21(13/14):2054–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Francis R. Report of the mid Staffordshire NHS foundation trust public inquiry. London: The Stationery Office; 2013.Google Scholar
  27. Fraser DM. Pre-registration midwifery programmes: a case study evaluation of the non-midwifery placements. Midwifery. 1996;12:16–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fraser DM. Delphi technique: one cycle of an action research project to improve the pre-registration midwifery curriculum. Nurse Educ Today. 1999a;19:495–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fraser DM. Women’s perceptions of midwifery care: a longitudinal study to shape curriculum development. Birth. 1999b;26:99–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fraser DM. Action research to improve the pre-registration midwifery curriculum–part 1: an appropriate methodology. Midwifery. 2000a;16:213–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fraser DM. Action research to improve the pre-registration midwifery curriculum part 2: case study evaluation in seven sites in England. Midwifery. 2000b;16:277–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fraser DM. Action research to improve the pre-registration midwifery curriculum part 3: can fitness for practice be guaranteed? The challenges of designing and implementing and effective assessment in practice scheme. Midwifery. 2000c;16:287–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fraser DM. Improving learning in hospital labour suites: an ethnographic approach to educational audit. Learn Health Soc Care. 2006;5(4):194–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fraser DM, Murphy RJL, Worth-Butler MM. Preparing effective midwives: an outcome evaluation of the effectiveness of pre-registration midwifery programmes of education. London: English National Board for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting; 1998.Google Scholar
  35. Gaia Insights. Generation Y characteristics. 2015. Available via http://www.generationy.com/about-generation-y-in-the-workforce/characteristics/. Accessed 6 Feb 2018.
  36. Griffiths P, Dall’ora C, Ball J. Nurse staffing levels, quality and outcomes of care in NHS hospital wards: what does the evidence say? Health Work Evid Briefs. 2017;1:1.Google Scholar
  37. Hamshire C, Spearing R, Wibberler C. Student and newly qualified staff attrition scoping review. Final report – executive summary. Manchester: Manchester Metropolitan University; 2014.Google Scholar
  38. Health and Social Care Information Centre. NHS workforce statistics. 2014. Available via http://tinyurl.com/p9458n8. Accessed 6 Feb 2018.
  39. Health Education England (HEE). Health education England working across England. 2018. Available via https://www.hee.nhs.uk. Accessed 23 Feb 2018.
  40. Health Education England. Workforce planning and information Leeds, Health Education England. 2015. Available via https://www.hee.nhs.uk. Accessed 6 Feb 2018.
  41. Health education England—Wessex Advanced Practice Network. Wessex advanced practice framework. Wessex: NHS; 2016.Google Scholar
  42. HEPI and Unite Students. Reality check a report on university applicants’ attitudes and perceptions. Oxford: Higher Education Policy Institute; 2017.Google Scholar
  43. Hobbs JA. Newly qualified midwives’ transition to qualified status and role: assimilating the ‘habitus’ or reshaping it? Midwifery. 2012;28(3):391–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2011.04.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hu J, Herrick C, Hodgin KA. Managing the multigenerational nursing. Health Care Manag. 2004;23(4):334–40.Google Scholar
  45. Hughes A, Fraser D. “SINK” or “SWIM”: the experience of newly qualified midwives in England. Midwifery. 2011;27:382–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hunter B, Warren L. Investigating resilience in midwifery. Final Report. Cardiff: Cardiff University; 2013. Available via http://tinyurl.com/hd79kpc. Accessed 15 Oct 2017.
  47. ICM. The definition of a midwife. 2017. Available via http://internationalmidwives.org/who-we-are/policy-and-practice/icm-international-definition-of-the-midwife. Accessed 2 Feb 2018.
  48. Jones K, Warren A, Davies A. Mind the gap exploring the needs of early career nurses and midwives in the workplace. Birmingham: NHS HEE; 2015.Google Scholar
  49. Kirkup B. The report of the Morecambe Bay investigation. London: The Stationary Office; 2015.Google Scholar
  50. Kitson-Reynolds E. The lived experience of newly qualified midwives, Thesis. University of Southampton; 2010.Google Scholar
  51. Kitson-Reynolds E. Who am I? I am a post doctorate clinical academic midwife. What does that actually mean? Pract Midwife. 2018;January: 32–35.Google Scholar
  52. Kitson-Reynolds E, Ferns P, Trenerry A. Transition to midwifery: collaborative working between university and maternity services. Br J Midwifery. 2015;23:510–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kitson-Reynolds E, Cluett E, le May A. Fairy tale midwifery: fact or fiction. Br J Midwifery. 2014;22(9):660–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Knight M, Nair M, Tuffnell D, On behalf of MBRRACE-UK, et al., editors. Saving lives, improving mothers’ care - lessons learned to inform maternity care from the UK and Ireland confidential enquiries into maternal deaths and morbidity 2013–15. Oxford: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford; 2017.Google Scholar
  55. Kramer M. Why nurses leave nursing. London: Mosby; 1974.Google Scholar
  56. Lauder W, Roxburgh M, Holland K, et al. The report of the evaluation of fitness for practice for pre-registration nursing and midwifery curricula project. Edinburgh: NHS Education for Scotland; 2008.Google Scholar
  57. Leng G, Moore V, Abraham S. Achieving high quality care—practical experience from NICE. Chichester: Wiley; 2014.Google Scholar
  58. Maben J. Newly qualified project 2000 diplomates’ perceptions of their experiences of transition from student to staff nurse. Unpublished MSc Thesis. Kings College, University of London; 1995.Google Scholar
  59. Maben J, Macleod-Clark JM. Making the transition from student to staff nurse. Nurs Times. 1996;92(44):28–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Maben J, Macleod-Clark J. Project 2000 diplomates’ perceptions of their experiences of transition from student to staff nurse. J Adv Nurs. 1998;7:145–53.Google Scholar
  61. Maben J, Latter S, Macleod-Clarke J. The theory-practice gap: impact of professional-bureaucratic work conflict on newly qualified nurses. J Adv Nurs. 2006;55(4):465–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Macleod-Clarke J, Maben J, Jones K. Project 2000. Perceptions of the philosophy and practice of nursing: preparation for practice. J Adv Nurs. 1997;26:246–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mason J, Davies SA. A qualitative evaluation of a preceptorship programme for midwives. Evid Based Midwifery. 2013;11(3):94–8.Google Scholar
  64. Murphy H. Preceptorships for newly qualified staff Leeds, NHS Employers. 2014. Available via http://www.nhsemployers.org/your-workforce/plan/education-and-training/preceptorships-for-newly-qualified-staff. Accessed 14 May 2017.
  65. NHS. Gathering feedback from families following the death of their baby London clinical networks. London: NHS England; 2017.Google Scholar
  66. NHS Education for Scotland. Flying start in Scotland. 2017. Available via http://flyingstart.scot.nhs.uk. Accessed 14 May 2017.
  67. NHS England. Better births- improving outcomes of maternity services in England: a five year forward plan. 2016. Available via https://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/national-maternity-review-report.pdf. Accessed 28 Nov 2017.
  68. NHS England. A-Equip midwifery supervision model. 2017. Available via https://www.england.nhs.uk/mat-transformation/implementing-better-births/midwifery-task-force/a-equip-midwifery-supervision-model/. Accessed 6 Feb 2018.
  69. NHS Leadership Academy. The Edward Jenner programme: the foundations of leadership. n.d.. Available via http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/programmes/the-edward-jenner-programme/. Accessed 14 May 2017.
  70. NISRA. Registrar general annual report 2016 births. Crown Copyright. 2017. Available via https://www.nisra.gov.uk/statistics/births-deaths-and-marriages/births. Accessed 6 Feb 2018.
  71. NMC. The nursing and midwifery order, 2001. London: The Stationary Office Ltd.; 2002.Google Scholar
  72. NMC. Standards to support learning and assessment in practice: NMC standards for mentors, practice teachers and teachers. London: NMC; 2008.Google Scholar
  73. NMC. Standards for pre-registration midwifery education. London: NMC; 2009.Google Scholar
  74. NMC. The MINT report. London: NMC; 2010.Google Scholar
  75. NMC. The midwifery curriculum: analysis of three key topic. London: NMC; 2017a.Google Scholar
  76. NMC. What is a nursing associate? 2017b. Available via https://www.nmc.org.uk/standards/nursing-associates/what-is-a-nursing-associate/. Accessed 6 Feb 2018.
  77. NMC. Revalidation your step by step guide through the process. London: NMC; 2017c. Available via http://revalidation.nmc.org.uk. Accessed 6 Feb 2018.
  78. NMC. Becoming a midwife. 2017d. Available via https://www.nmc.org.uk/education/becoming-a-nurse-or-midwife/becoming-a-midwife/. Accessed 15 August 2017.
  79. NMC. Part 2: standards for student supervision and assessment. London: NMC; 2018.Google Scholar
  80. Nuffield Trust. The NHS is the world’s fifth largest employer. 2017. Available via https://www.nuffieldtrust.org.uk/chart/the-nhs-is-the-world-s-fifth-largest-employer. Accessed 6 Feb 2018.
  81. O’Neill O. The King’s fund–safe births: everybody’s business. An independent enquiry into the safety of maternity services in England. 2008. Available via https://www.kingsfund.org.uk/publications/safe-births-everybodys-business. Accessed 6 Feb 2018.
  82. Peyman A, Nayeri ND, Bandboni ME, Moghadam ZB. Legal complaints about midwives and the impact on the profession. Nurs Ethics. 2017:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733016689816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Phillips J. Helping community based students in a final consolidation placement make the transition into registered practice. Br J Community Nurs. 2014;19(7):352–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Quinn A. Maternity enhanced care: competencies required by midwives caring for acutely ill women. Version 3. Intercollegiate maternal critical care subcommittee of the obstetric Anaesthetists Association; 2015.Google Scholar
  85. Renfrew MJ, McFadden A, Bastos MH, et al. Midwifery and quality care: findings from a new evidence-informed framework for maternal and newborn care. Lancet. 2014;384:1129–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rivett G. Bevan and the NHS 1945–1948. 2015. http://www.nhshistory.net/bevan.htm. Accessed 6 Feb 2018.
  87. Robbins S, Judge T. Organisational behaviour. 16th ed. New Jersey: Pearson; 2014.Google Scholar
  88. Royal College of Midwives. RCM welcomes degree-only nursing profession. 2009a. Available via http://www.rcm.org.uk/midwives/news/rcm-welcomes-all-degree-nursing-profession/?locale=en. Accessed 2 Feb 2018.
  89. Royal College of Midwives. Senior midwives report falling budgets despite rocketing birth rates. 2009b. Available via http://www.rcm.org.uk/college/media-centre/press-releases/senior-midwives-report-falling-budgets. Accessed 2 Feb 2018.
  90. Royal College of Midwives. State of maternity services report. London: RCM; 2016.Google Scholar
  91. Royal College of Midwives. Birth rate rise–“3500 midwives needed”. 2016a. Available via https://www.rcm.org.uk/news-views-and-analysis/news/birth-rate-rise-%e2%80%93-%e2%80%983500-midwives-needed%e2%80%99. Accessed 1 Sep 2017.
  92. Royal College of Midwives. Work related stress. 2016b. Available via www.rcm.org.uk/equality-and-diversity. Accessed 20 Oct 2017.
  93. Royal College of Midwives. Caring for you campaign–working in partnership. 2016c. Available via www.rcm.org.uk/caringforyou. Accessed 19 Oct 2017.
  94. RCM. Better births campaign. 2018. Available via https://betterbirths.rcm.org.uk. Accessed 23 Feb 2018.
  95. Royal College of Midwives. Royal College of midwives statement on the outcome of the referendum on membership of the EU. 2017. Available via https://www.rcm.org.uk/news-views-and-analysis/news/royal-college-of-midwives-statement-on-the-outcome-of-the-referendum-on. Accessed 15 Oct 2017.
  96. Rush KL, Adamack M, Gordon J, et al. Best practices of formal new graduate nurse transition programmes: an integrative review. J Nurs Stud. 2013;50:345–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Scottish Government. Births, deaths & other vital events, 2017 Q3 published Dec 2017. 2017. Available via https://beta.gov.scot/news/births-deaths-other-vital-events-2017-q3/. Accessed 12 Jan 2018.
  98. Skills for Health. Apprentices service. 2017. Available via http://www.skillsforhealth.org.uk/about/national-skills-academy-for-health/item/167-apprenticeship-service. Accessed 5 Feb 2018.
  99. The Kings Fund. Ideas that change healthcare. 2018. Available via https://www.kingsfund.org.uk. Accessed 6 Feb 2018.
  100. The Lisbon Treaty. Article 50(3). Off J Eur Union. 2008;C 115:51. Available via http://www.lisbon-treaty.org/wcm/the-lisbon-treaty/treaty-on-European-union-and-comments/title-6-final-provisions/137-article-50.html Accessed 6 Feb 2018Google Scholar
  101. Trueman CN. “A history of the European Union and great Britain” The history learning site. 2015. Available via https://historylearningsite.co.uk. Accessed 23 Feb 2018.
  102. Van der Putten D. The lived experience of newly qualified midwives: a qualitative study. Br J Midwifery. 2008;16:48–58.Google Scholar
  103. Wain A. Examining the lived experiences of newly qualified midwives during their preceptorship. Br J Midwifery. 2017;25(7):451–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Walsh D. Promoting normal birth: weighing the evidence. In: Downe S, editor. Normal childbirth: evidence and debate. 2nd ed. London: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2008. Chapter 10. pp 178.Google Scholar
  105. Willis L. Raising the bar. Shape of caring: a review of the future education and training of registered nurses and care assistants. 2015. Available via https://www.hee.nhs.uk/our-work/developing-our-workforce/nursing/shape-caring-review. Accessed 7 Feb 2018.
  106. World health Organisation. The Munich declaration: nurses and midwives: a force for health. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe; 2000.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Post Doc Clinical Academic Midwife, School of Health SciencesUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK
  2. 2.University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation TrustSouthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations