Humans are highly responsive to social partners. Either consciously or unconsciously, humans adjust one’s own behavior to match with those of others. Moreover, humans can predict others’ intention or desire and often behave in a prosocial way to help themselves. A comparative approach is one of the powerful tools to understand the evolutionary origins of these social behaviors in humans, including emotional contagion, sympathetic concern, perspective-taking and targeted helping behaviors, and its relationship to each other. Among these social behaviors, an ability for the coordinated movements with others (i.e., interpersonal coordination) has been postulated as the most essential to the other social behaviors. Interpersonal coordination includes two types of behavior: mimicry and interactional synchrony. Mimicry is matching a type of the behavior, such as body postures or facial expressions. In contrast, interactional synchrony is matching the timing of behavior. Relative to the studies on mimicry, there are few studies on interactional synchrony in non-human primate species possibly due to the difficulties in establishing a methodology. In this chapter, we present gradually the increasing number of studies on interactional synchrony in humans and non-human primates. The findings demonstrate that the ability for interactional synchrony is shared across humans, chimpanzees, bonobos, and macaques. The latest findings from a direct comparison between humans and chimpanzees further demonstrate that there are both similarities and significant differences on the ability between two species. At the end of this chapter, we suggest a future direction of the comparative studies on interactional synchrony.
Social interaction Rhythmic coordination Comparative cognition Empathy Synchrony
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
We thank T. Matsuzawa and other staff members at the Language and Intelligence Section and Center for Human Evolution Modeling Research of Kyoto University Primate Research Institute for their support and daily care of the chimpanzees. We would like to acknowledge financial supports by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (244525 and 16F16001 to L.Y.; 16H01487 to Y.H.; 26118509, 15H05309, 15H01619, and 17H05862 to S.Y.; and 15H05709, 16H06283, 20002001, 23220006, and 24000001 to M.T.), JSPS-CCSN, Global COE programs (A06, D07), and the JSPS Leading Graduate Program in Primatology and Wildlife Science (U04) at Kyoto University.
Allison T, Puce A, McCarthy G (2000) Social perception from visual cues: role of the STS region. Trends Cogn Sci 4(7):267–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson JR, Myowa-Yamakoshi M, Matsuzawa T (2004) Contagious yawning in chimpanzees. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 271(Suppl 6):S468–S470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arcadi AC (1996) Phrase structure of wild chimpanzee pant hoots: patterns of production and interpopulation variability. Am J Primatol 39(3):159–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bernieri FJ, Rosenthal R (1991) Interpersonal coordination: behavior matching and interactional synchrony. In: Feldman RS, Rimé B (eds) Fundamentals of nonverbal behavior. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 401–432Google Scholar
Boesch C, Boesch H (2000) The chimpanzees of the Tai forest. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
Patel AD (2006) Musical rhythm, linguistic rhythm, and human evolution. Music Percept Interdisc J 24(1):99–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patel AD, Iversen JR, Bregman MR, Schulz I (2009) Experimental evidence for synchronization to a musical beat in a nonhuman animal. Curr Biol 19(10):827–830CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Paukner A, Anderson JR (2006) Video-induced yawning in stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides). Biol Lett 2(1):36–38CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Repp BH, Penel A (2002) Auditory dominance in temporal processing: new evidence from synchronization with simultaneous visual and auditory sequences. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 28(5):1085CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Repp BH, Penel A (2004) Rhythmic movement is attracted more strongly to auditory than to visual rhythms. Psychol Res 68(4):252–270CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Schmidt RC, Carello C, Turvey MT (1990) Phase transitions and critical fluctuations in the visual coordination of rhythmic movements between people. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 16(2):227CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Sebanz N, Bekkering H, Knoblich G (2006) Joint action: bodies and minds moving together. Trends Cogn Sci 10(2):70–76CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Van Baaren RB, Holland RW, Kawakami K, Van Knippenberg A (2004) Mimicry and prosocial behavior. Psychol Sci 15(1):71–74CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
van Ulzen NR, Lamoth CJ, Daffertshofer A, Semin GR, Beek PJ (2008) Characteristics of instructed and uninstructed interpersonal coordination while walking side-by-side. Neurosci Lett 432(2):88–93CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Wallin NL, Merker B, Brown S (2000) The origins of music. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
Watts DP, Mitani JC (2001) Boundary patrols and intergroup encounters in wild chimpanzees. Behaviour 138(3):299–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yu L, Tomonaga M (2016) Unidirectional adaptation in tempo in pairs of chimpanzees during simultaneous tapping movement: an examination under face-to-face setup. Primates 57:181–185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Yu L, Tomonaga M (2018) Effect of visual cues in addition to moderate auditory cues on temporal coordination: a comparative study in humans and chimpanzees. bioRxiv:290379. https://doi.org/10.1101/290379
Zarco W, Merchant H, Prado L, Mendez JC (2009) Subsecond timing in primates: comparison of interval production between human subjects and rhesus monkeys. J Neurophysiol 102(6):3191–3202CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Zivotofsky AZ, Hausdorff JM (2007) The sensory feedback mechanisms enabling couples to walk synchronously: an initial investigation. J Neuroeng Rehabil 4(1):1CrossRefGoogle Scholar