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Fate of Organic and Inorganic Pollutants in Paddy Soils

  • Rida Akram
  • Veysel Turan
  • Hafiz Mohkum Hammad
  • Shakeel Ahmad
  • Sajjad Hussain
  • Ahmad Hasnain
  • Muhammad Muddasar Maqbool
  • Muhammad Ishaq Asif Rehmani
  • Atta Rasool
  • Nasir Masood
  • Faisal Mahmood
  • Muhammad Mubeen
  • Syeda Refat Sultana
  • Shah Fahad
  • Khizer Amanet
  • Mazhar Saleem
  • Yasir Abbas
  • Haji Muhammad Akhtar
  • Sajjad Hussain
  • Farhat Waseem
  • Rabbia Murtaza
  • Asad Amin
  • Syed Ahsan Zahoor
  • Muhammad Sami ul Din
  • Wajid Nasim
Chapter
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 53)

Abstract

Paddy soils have a heterogenous nature, with complex physico-chemical interactions and varying soil characteristics. Paddy soils remain flooded and are considered as rich sources of nutrients for plant growth. The nutrient levels mostly depend on different management practices, such as fertilizer application, irrigation, and tillage, and the movement of nutrients in the soils. These paddy soils normally show less movement of applied nutrients out of the medium than other soils, because of stagnant water that reduces the mobility rate. Paddy soils can become polluted by anthropogenic practices such as the use of sewage wastewater; industrial wastewater containing heavy metals; fertilizers; and pesticides, and the leakage of petrochemicals. Some natural pollutants can be oxidized by microbial activity, but most pollutants do not undergo biotic and chemical degradation. Inorganic (heavy metals) and organic pollutants (polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans) are the major types of pollutants in paddy soils. The numerous organic and inorganic pollutants resulting from anthropogenic activities can remain for long periods in nature and can be transported over long distances. In particular, organic pollutants can be bioaccumulated and biomagnified, thus reaching high levels that can be dangerous for human wellbeing and biological communities. Inorganic pollutants such as the heavy metals Pb, Cr, As, Zn, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Ni cause hazards for human health, for plants, for animals, and for the fertility status of the soil. These heavy metals are common pollutants in paddy soil and they bioaccumulate; in this way the concentrations of these pollutants increase in living systems, owing to their retention rates being higher than their discharge rates in these systems. The fate of these pollutants depends on their bioavailability, degradation by microorganisms, adsorption, desorption, leaching, and runoff. The transport and degradation of these pollutants in paddy soils and groundwater results in contamination. The physico-chemical characteristics of the paddy soil framework; for example, the water content, soil organic matter, presence of clay, and pH, influence the sorption or desorption and degradation of pollutants and also influence leaching to the groundwater and runoff to surface waters. The translocation of natural pesticides in paddy soils depends upon the ionic or neutral behavior of the soil constituents, on the pesticides’ solubility in water, extremity on the substance, and the colloidal nature of the paddy soils.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The corresponding author (Wajid Nasim) is grateful to both the Higher Education Commission (HEC), for research project (NRPU 3393), and the Pakistan Science Foundation (PSF) Pakistan, for an International Travel Grant to Turkey in 2017, and he greatly acknowledges the funding and sponsorship.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rida Akram
    • 1
  • Veysel Turan
    • 2
  • Hafiz Mohkum Hammad
    • 3
  • Shakeel Ahmad
    • 4
  • Sajjad Hussain
    • 4
  • Ahmad Hasnain
    • 4
  • Muhammad Muddasar Maqbool
    • 5
  • Muhammad Ishaq Asif Rehmani
    • 5
  • Atta Rasool
    • 6
  • Nasir Masood
    • 3
  • Faisal Mahmood
    • 7
  • Muhammad Mubeen
    • 1
  • Syeda Refat Sultana
    • 1
  • Shah Fahad
    • 8
  • Khizer Amanet
    • 3
  • Mazhar Saleem
    • 3
  • Yasir Abbas
    • 3
  • Haji Muhammad Akhtar
    • 3
  • Sajjad Hussain
    • 3
  • Farhat Waseem
    • 3
  • Rabbia Murtaza
    • 9
  • Asad Amin
    • 1
  • Syed Ahsan Zahoor
    • 3
  • Muhammad Sami ul Din
    • 3
  • Wajid Nasim
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesCOMSATS UniversityVehariPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of AgricultureBingöl UniversityBingölTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Environmental SciencesCOMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT)VehariPakistan
  4. 4.Bhauddin Zakerya UniversityMultanPakistan
  5. 5.Department of AgronomyGhazi UniversityDera Ghazi KhanPakistan
  6. 6.State Key Laboratory of Environmental GeochemistryInstitute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of SciencesGuiyangChina
  7. 7.Department of Environmental Sciences and EngineeringGovernment College UniversityFaisalabadPakistan
  8. 8.Department of AgricultureUniversity of SwabiKhyber Pakhtonkha (KPK)Pakistan
  9. 9.Center for Climate Change and Research DevelopmentCOMSATS UniversityIslamabadPakistan

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