Advertisement

Second Nature, the Will, and Human Neuroscience

  • Grant Gillett
Chapter

Abstract

Second nature is what we create in ourselves on the basis of natural capacities comprising first (biological) nature. The self-configuration doing that creative work is an enactive version of what we do all the time. We think of a way things are not but might be (with a little bit of this and a little bit of that) and we make it so. The human will as an origin of what is not but could be brings forth out of thought—the active links we forge between things based on our forms of life—new things. This bringing forth is a creative force in the world that we call the human will. It is always going beyond what is and making what is not (the imaginary) into something real.

Keywords

The will Free will and self-formation Non-linear dynamics Social discursive and political function 

References and Bibliography

  1. Blair, J. (2003). Neurobiological basis of psychopathy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 182, 5–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chamberlain, S., et al. (2008). Orbitofrontal dysfunction in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder. Science, 321, 421–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Davidson, D. (1980). Essays on actions and events. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  4. Friedlander, L., & Desrocher, M. (2006). Neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults and children. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 32–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gillett, G. (2008). Subjectivity and being somebody: Human identity and neuroethics (St Andrews Series on Philosophy and Public Affairs). Exeter: Imprint Academic.Google Scholar
  6. Gillett, G. (2010). Intentional action, moral responsibility and psychopaths. In L. Malatesti & J. McMillan (Eds.), Responsibility and psychopathy: Interfacing law, ethics, and psychiatry (pp. 283–298). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gillett, G., & Amos C. (2015). The discourse of clinical ethics and the maladies of the soul. In Oxford handbook of psychiatric ethics (Vol. I, Chap. 30). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Gillett, G., & Harre, R. (2013). Discourse and diseases of the psyche. In K. W. M. Fulford et al. (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of philosophy and psychiatry (pp. 307–320). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Glannon, W. (2015). Free will and the brain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Haggard, P. (2008). Human volition: Towards a neuroscience of will. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9, 934–946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Harre, R., & Gillett, G. (1994). The discursive mind. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  12. Hughlings Jackson, J. (1878). On affectations of speech from disease of the brain (1). Brain, I(III), 304–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hughlings Jackson, J. (1887). Remarks on the evolution and dissolution of the nervous system. British Journal of Psychiatry, 33, 25–48.Google Scholar
  14. Kant, I. (1788 [1956]). The critique of practical reason (L. W. Beck, Trans.). Indianapolis: Bobbs Merrill (hereinafter C PracR).Google Scholar
  15. Kiehl, K., et al. (2001). Limbic abnormalities in affective processing by criminal psychopaths as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Biological Psychiatry, 50, 677–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kwon, J. S., et al. (2003). Neural correlates of clinical symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 122, 37–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Libet, B. (1985). Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious will in voluntary action. The Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 8, 529–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Luria, A. R. (1973). The working brain. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  19. Lynam, D., & Gudonis, L. (2005). The development of psychopathy. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 381–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McGuigan, F. J. (1997). A neuromuscular model of mind with clinical and educational applications. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 18(4), 351–370.Google Scholar
  21. Mercier, H., & Sperber, D. (2011). Why do humans reason? Arguments for an argumentative theory. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 34, 57–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mitchell, J. P. (2009). Social psychology as a natural kind. Trends in Cognitive Science, 13(5), 246–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nussbaum, M. (1990). Love’s knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Roskies, A. (2006). Neuroscientific challenges to free will and responsibility. Trends in Cognitive Science, 10(9), 419–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Saxe, R. (2006). Uniquely human social cognition. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 16, 235–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Spence, S. A., Hunter, M. D., & Harpin, G. (2002). Neuroscience and the will. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 15(5), 519–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wegner, D. (2002). The illusion of the conscious will. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  28. Whiteside, S., Port, J., & Abramovitz, J. (2004). A meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 132, 69–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Williams, B. (1985). Ethics and the limits of philosophy. London: Fontana.Google Scholar
  30. Wittgenstein, L. (1965). Wittgenstein’s lecture on ethics. Philosophical Review, 74, 3–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Grant Gillett
    • 1
  1. 1.Dunedin School of MedicineUniversity of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations