Outcome Rates and Effect on Sample Size

  • Richard Valliant
  • Jill A. Dever
  • Frauke Kreuter
Part of the Statistics for Social and Behavioral Sciences book series (SSBS)


Outcome rates, such as the percent of sample units refusing to participate in a survey, generally have three uses. The first is to measure study performance and outcome rates, which are often also referred to as process indicators. The second use is to inflate a calculated sample size for loss of sample units to ensure viability of planned analyses. Third, study rates can also be incorporated into the design weights as adjustment factors to create final analysis weights. Outcome rates are not necessarily a measure of data quality but can be used to guide field decisions, and the logic behind them helps in the planning stages of a survey. Disposition codes are discussed that are needed to define the outcome rates.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Valliant
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jill A. Dever
    • 3
  • Frauke Kreuter
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.University of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  3. 3.RTI InternationalWashington, DCUSA
  4. 4.University of MannheimMannheimGermany

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