Most surveys of any size are multipurpose—many important variables, different estimation needs (means, totals, model parameters, etc.) and various domains or subpopulations. Minimum sample sizes may be set for the domains, along with precision constraints for the estimates. Above all, there is usually a limited amount of money available. Multiple goals and constraints mean that the allocation problem is considerably more complicated than was presented in earlier chapters. These goals and constraints can be accommodated using the techniques of mathematical programming that are illustrated using the Solver tool in Excel, the nloptr and alabama packages in R, and the optmodel and nlp procedures in SAS.
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