Advertisement

Myodocarpaceae

Myodocarpaceae Doweld, Tent. Syst. Pl. Vasc. lii (2001).
  • P. P. LowryIIEmail author
  • G. M. Plunkett
Chapter
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 15)

Abstract

Shrubs to small trees, glabrous and unarmed; schizogenous secretory canals throughout the plant; plants terrestrial, evergreen; stems monocaulous or sparsely to well branched, pachycaulous; mating system andromonoecious (rarely hermaphroditic). Leaves alternate, frequently heteroblastic; petioles sheathing at the base, exstipulate, sometimes alate; blade simple or pinnately compound, with entire or toothed margins; venation pinnate. Inflorescences terminal, paniculate, the ultimate units umbellate; inflorescence axes subtended by small to foliose bracts; flowers subtended by an involucel of bracteoles; pedicels articulate. Flowers either perfect or staminate, epigynous, actinomorphic; perianth 5-merous; calyx forming a short low tube with evident lobes, valvate or imbricate; petals imbricate (rarely valvate), sometimes calyptrate, the bases clawed or broadly inserted; stamens 5, in a single whorl, alternipetalous, anthers dorsifixed, introrse, tetrasporangiate, each pollen sac dehiscing by a longitudinal slit; filaments filiform to stout, inflexed in bud; ovary syncarpous, of 2 carpels (vestigial in staminate flowers), each carpel unilocular with apical placentation; stigmas on a distinct style; styles free, geniculate or not, sometimes swollen at the base and confluent with the nectariferous disc (reduced in staminate flowers); ovules anatropous, pendulous, one per locule, unitegmic. Fruits simple, either drupaceous with a fleshy mesocarp and a separate, variously sclerified endocarp (pyrene) around each locule, or dry schizocarpic with two mericarps borne on a carpophore; numerous secretory vesicles present in the exocarp and canals in the mesocarp and sometimes the endocarp. Seeds straight; endosperm copious, oily, uniform; embryo minute but well differentiated.

Selected Bibliography

  1. Baumann, M. 1946. Myodocarpus und die Phylogenie der Umbelliferenfrucht. Ber. Schweiz. Bot. Ges. 56: 13–112. Google Scholar
  2. Chandler, G.T., Plunkett, G.M. 2004. Evolution in Apiales: nuclear and chloroplast markers together in (almost) perfect harmony. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 144: 123–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Erbar, C., Leins, P. 2010. Nectaries in Apiales and related groups. Pl. Div. Evol. 128: 269–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hallé, F., Oldeman, R.A.A., Tomlinson, P.B. 1978. Tropical trees and forests. An architectural analysis. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  5. Konstantinova, A.I., Yembaturova, E.Y. 2010. The family Myodocarpaceae: looking at the system from the standpoint of comparative carpology. Pl. Div. Evol. 128: 347–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Lebouvier, N., Lawes, D., Hnawia, E., Page, M., Brophy, J., Nour, M. 2014. The leaf, wood and bark oils of three species of Myodocarpus (Myodocarpaceae) endemic to New Caledonia. Nat. Prod. Comm. 9: 1223–1227.Google Scholar
  7. Lee, D.W., Taylor, G.T., Irvine, A.K. 2000. Structural fruit coloration in Delarbrea michieana (Araliaceae). Int. J. Pl. Sci. 161: 297–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Liu, M., Plunkett, G.M., Lowry, P.P., II. 2010. Fruit anatomy provides structural synapomorphies to help define Myodocarpaceae (Apiales). Syst. Bot. 35: 675–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Liu, M., Plunkett, G.M., Van Wyk, B.-E., Tilney, P.M., Lowry, P.P., II. 2012. The phylogenetic significance of the carpophore in Apiaceae. Ann. Bot. 110: 1531–1543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lowry, P.P., II. 1986a. “A Systematic Study of Three Genera of Araliaceae Endemic to or Centered on New Caledonia: Delarbrea, Myodocarpus, and Pseudosciadium”. Ph.D. dissertation, Washington Univ., St. Louis.Google Scholar
  11. Lowry, P.P., II. 1986b. A systematic study of Delarbrea Vieill. (Araliaceae). Allertonia 4: 169–201.Google Scholar
  12. Lowry, P.P., II, Plunkett, G.M., Raquet, V., Sprenkle, T.S., Jérémie, J. 2004. Inclusion of the endemic New Caledonian genus Pseudosciadium in Delarbrea (Apiales, Myodocarpaceae). Adansonia III, 26: 251–256.Google Scholar
  13. Nicolas, A.N., Plunkett, G.M. 2009. The demise of subfamily Hydrocotyloideae (Apiaceae) and the re-alignment of its genera across the entire order Apiales. Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 53: 134–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Oskolski, A.A., Lowry, P.P., II, Richter, H.G. 1997. Systematic wood anatomy of Myodocarpus, Delarbrea, and Pseudosciadium (Araliaceae). Adansonia III, 19: 61–75.Google Scholar
  15. Plunkett, G.M., Lowry, P.P., II. 2001. Relationships among “Ancient Araliads” and their significance for the systematics of Apiales. Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 19: 259–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Plunkett, G.M., Soltis, D.E., Soltis, P.S. 1997. Clarification of the relationship between Apiaceae and Araliaceae based on matK and rbcL sequence data. Amer. J. Bot. 84: 565–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Plunkett, G.M., Chandler, G.T., Lowry, P.P., II, Pinney, S.M., Sprenkle, T.S. 2004. Recent advances in understanding Apiales and a revised classification. S. African J. Bot. 70: 371–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rodríguez, R.L. 1957. Systematic anatomical studies on Myrrhidendron and other woody Umbellales. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 29: 145–318.Google Scholar
  19. Rodríguez, R.L. 1971. The relationships of the Umbellales. In: Heywood, V.H. (ed.) The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 64, Suppl. 1: 63–91.Google Scholar
  20. Schlessman, M.A. 2010. Major events in the evolution of sexual systems in Apiales: ancestral andromonoecy abandoned. Pl. Div. Evol. 128: 233–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Schlessman, M.A., Lloyd, D.G., Lowry, P.P., II. 1990. Evolution of sexual systems in New Caledonian Araliaceae. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 55: 105–117.Google Scholar
  22. Schlessman, M.A., Plunkett, G.M., Lowry, P.P., II, Lloyd, D.G. 2001. Sexual systems of New Caledonian Araliaceae: A preliminary phylogenetic reappraisal. Edinb. J. Bot. 58: 221–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Thorne, R.F. 1973. Inclusion of the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) in the Araliaceae. Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 32: 161–165.Google Scholar
  24. Viguier, R. 1906. Recherches anatomiques sur la classification des Araliacées. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. IX, 4: 1–210.Google Scholar
  25. Yi, T., Lowry, P.P., II, Plunkett, G.M., Wen, J. 2004. Chromosomal evolution in Araliaceae and close relatives. Taxon 53: 987–1005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Missouri Botanical GardenSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Institut de Systématique, Évolution et Biodiversité (ISYEB)Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Sorbonne UniversitésParisFrance
  3. 3.Cullman Program for Molecular Systematics, New York Botanical GardenBronxUSA

Personalised recommendations