Global Epidemiology of NTM Disease (Except Northern America)

  • Dirk WagnerEmail author
  • Marc Lipman
  • Samantha Cooray
  • Felix C. Ringshausen
  • Kozo Morimoto
  • Won-Jung Koh
  • Rachel Thomson
Part of the Respiratory Medicine book series (RM)


This chapter summarizes the epidemiology of NTM isolations and NTM disease worldwide. Understanding of the global epidemiology of NTM disease is evolving due to heterogeneity of NTM isolation from continent to continent, from country to country and within countries. Even with incomplete information, current available population-based data imply that NTM-PD is increasing not only in North America but also in Europe, Asia and Australia. Due to the lack of availability of detection methods and the lack of awareness, NTM-PD is probably still underdiagnosed in many regions worldwide. Our understanding of the epidemiology of NTM worldwide would be considerably improved by undertaking large population-based studies, collecting relevant clinical data and providing information on subsequent outcome. Widespread application of new molecular methodology will enhance our understanding of NTM epidemiology, with regard to subspeciation of potentially disease-causing organisms, and ascertaining if repeated NTM isolates from an individual represent the same or different strains of the organism occurring over time.


Nontuberculous mycobacteria Epidemiology Global 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dirk Wagner
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marc Lipman
    • 2
  • Samantha Cooray
    • 3
  • Felix C. Ringshausen
    • 4
  • Kozo Morimoto
    • 5
  • Won-Jung Koh
    • 6
  • Rachel Thomson
    • 7
  1. 1.Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine IIMedical Center – University of Freiburg, Faculty of MedicineFreiburgGermany
  2. 2.UCL RespiratoryUniversity College London & Royal Free London NHS Foundation TrustLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of Respiratory MedicineSt Thomas’ Hospital, Guys and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation TrustLondonUK
  4. 4.Department of Respiratory MedicineHannover Medical School and German Center for Lung ResearchHannoverGermany
  5. 5.Division of Clinical ResearchFukujuji Hospital, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis AssociationTokyoJapan
  6. 6.Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of MedicineSamsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of MedicineSeoulSouth Korea
  7. 7.Gallipoli Medical Research Institute, University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

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