NTM Disease Caused by M. kansasii, M. xenopi, M. malmoense, and Other Slowly Growing NTM

  • Theodore K. MarrasEmail author
  • Sarah K. Brode
Part of the Respiratory Medicine book series (RM)


Slowly growing NTM are very commonly encountered species in the management of NTM pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) and non-pulmonary infections. With the exception of M. avium complex, this chapter discusses 14 of the more problematic species of this group, providing information to guide the clinician in assessing and managing these infections. The commonly encountered M. kansasii, M. xenopi, and M. malmoense are discussed in greatest detail. Discussions include environmental sources of the organism, common patient phenotypes, typical anatomic sites of infection (pulmonary, non-pulmonary, disseminated), epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, antimicrobial treatment, and monitoring. Highlighted are areas where there is useful information regarding the role of antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing. Although guideline criteria are considered as the starting point for making a diagnosis of NTM-PD, specifically discussed is the concept that species of varying pathogenicity ought to be assessed with commensurate levels of suspicion. To make appropriate diagnostic and treatment decisions, clinicians must carefully consider what is known about the pathogenicity of the species in addition to all available clinical information. Summary tables present information regarding frequency and anatomic site of disease and antimicrobial treatment recommendations reflecting current guidelines and recent literature.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Respirology, Department of MedicineToronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Division of Respirology, Department of MedicineToronto Western Hospital, University Health Network and West Park Healthcare Centre, University of TorontoTorontoCanada

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