Advertisement

Experimental Tests of the Landauer Principle in Electron Circuits, and Quasi-Adiabatic Computing Systems

  • Alexei O. Orlov
  • Ismo K. Hänninen
  • César O. Campos-Aguillón
  • Rene Celis-Cordova
  • Michael S. McConnell
  • Gergo P. Szakmany
  • Cameron C. Thorpe
  • Brian T. Appleton
  • Graham P. Boechler
  • Craig S. Lent
  • Gregory L. Snider
Chapter

Abstract

Power dissipation is one of the most important factors limiting the development of integrated circuits. In this chapter, we will explore the limits of energy dissipation in computation with experiments and circuit designs. Our experiments show that there is no fundamental limit on energy that must be dissipated to perform computation as long as information is preserved, in agreement with the Landauer principle. The erasure of information leads to a loss of bit energy with an ultimate lower limit of kBT ln2, sometimes incorrectly referred to as the “Landauer limit for energy dissipation in computation.” We present an experiment where a dissipation of 0.005 kBT which is far below the limit of kBT ln2 occurs in reversible adiabatic bit manipulation, and experimentally demonstrate that dissipation of the full bit energy occurs if information is erased. To exploit the advantages of quasi-adiabatic reversible computation, we discuss adiabatic logic systems, and present the design of a microprocessor based upon adiabatic logic. Due to their inherent leakage current, field-effect transistors have limitations in adiabatic implementations. We discuss possible devices that have a better match to adiabatic systems. Finally, we present experiments making direct measurement of the heat generated in logical operations.

Keywords

Low power logic Landauer principle Adiabatic circuits Adiabatic microprocessor Reversible logic Experimental demonstration of the Landauer principle Design tools for adiabatic circuits Thermal measurements Nanothermocouples Bennett clocking Retractile cascade Energy in computation Energy-delay-area metric Low-noise measurements Quantum-dot cellular automata Adiabatic capacitive logic Ultimate shannon limit CMOS power dissipation Micromechanical logic Nano-relay logic Split-rail charge recovery logic Differential thermometry 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by the DoD, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowship, 32 CFR 168a, and the National Science Foundation under Grants ECCS09-01659, ECCS09-01659, DGE-1313583, and ECCS-1509087. The authors are also grateful to Amy L. Snider for assistance in preparation of this chapter.

References

  1. 1.
    R.K. Cavin, V.V. Zhirnov, J.A. Hutchby, G.I. Bourianoff, Energy barriers, demons, and minimum energy operation of electronic devices. Fluct. Noise Lett. 5, C29–C38 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D.J. Costello, G.D. Forney, Channel coding: the road to channel capacity. Proc. IEEE 95, 1150–1177 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    W. Porod, R.O. Grondin, D.K. Ferry, G. Porod, Dissipation in computation. Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 232–235 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.D. Norton, Waiting for Landauer. Stud. Hist. Philos. Mod. Phys. 42, 184–198 (2011)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P.M. Solomon, D.J. Frank, Power Measurements of Adiabatic Circuits by Thermoelectric Technique, in International Symposium on Low Power Design, (ACM, San Jose, 1995), pp. 18–19Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Berut, A. Arakelyan, A. Petrosyan, S. Ciliberto, R. Dillenschneider, E. Lutz, Experimental verification of Landauer’s principle linking information and thermodynamics. Nature 483, 187–189 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A.O. Orlov, C.S. Lent, C.C. Thorpe, G.P. Boechler, G.L. Snider, Experimental test of Landauer’s principle at the sub-kBT level. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 06FE10 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. Lu, A. Seabaugh, Tunnel field-effect transistors: state-of-the-art. IEEE J. Electron Devices 2, 44–49 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. Patterson, The trouble with multicore. IEEE Spectr. 47, 28–32 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. Esmaeilzadeh, E. Blem, R. Amant, K. Sankaralingam, D. Burger, Dark Silicon and the End of Multicore Scaling, in 38th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture, (ACM, San Jose, 2011), pp. 365–376Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Henkel, H. Khdr, S. Pagani, M. Shafique, New Trends in Dark Silicon, in Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Design Automation Conference, (ACM, New York, 2015)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. Landauer, Irreversibility and heat generation in the computing process. IBM J. Res. Dev. 5, 183–191 (1961)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    C.E. Shannon, A mathematical theory of communication. Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379–423 (1948)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    B. Lambson, J. Bokor, Temperature Dependence of Heat Dissipation During Landauer Erasure of Nanomagnets, in IEEE-NANO, 2012, 12th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology, (IEEE, Birmingham, 2012), pp. 1–3Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    L.B. Kish, Thermal (noise) death of Moore’s law? AIP Conf. Proc. 665, 469–476 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    P.J.B. Koeck, Quantization errors in averaged digitized data. Signal Process. 81, 345–356 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    K. Roy, S. Bandyopadhyay, J. Atulasimha, Hybrid spintronics and straintronics: a magnetic technology for ultra low energy computing and signal processing. Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 063108 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    K. Galatsis, A. Khitun, R. Ostroumov, K.L. Wang, W.R. Dichtel, E. Plummer, J.F. Stoddart, J.I. Zink, J.Y. Lee, Y.-H. Xie, K.W. Kim, Alternate state variables for emerging nanoelectronic devices. IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 8, 66–75 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M.S. Fashami, K. Roy, J. Atulasimha, S. Bandyopadhyay, Magnetization dynamics, Bennett clocking and associated energy dissipation in multiferroic logic. Nanotechnology 22, 155201 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. Bandyopadhyay, M. Cahay, Electron spin for classical information processing: A brief survey of spin-based logic devices, gates and circuits. Nanotechnology 20, 412001 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    V.V. Zhirnov, R.K. Cavin, J.A. Hutchby, G.I. Bourianoff, Limits to binary logic switch scaling - a Gedanken model. Proc. IEEE 91, 1934–1939 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Salahuddin, S. Datta, Interacting systems for self-correcting low power switching. Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 093503–093503 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    R.P. Cowburn, D.K. Koltsov, A.O. Adeyeye, M.E. Welland, D.M. Tricker, Single-domain circular nanomagnets. Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1042–1045 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    H.G. Gauch, Scientific Method in Practice (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    E. Fredkin, T. Toffoli, Conservative logic. Int. J. Theor. Phys. 21, 219–253 (1982)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. Toffoli, Reversible Computing. Tech. Memo MIT/LCS/TM-151 (MIT Labaratory for Computer Science, Cambridge, 1980)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, N. Yoshikawa, Reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices. Sci. Rep. 4, 6354 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, N. Yoshikawa, Reversible computing using adiabatic superconductor logic. Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 8507, 15–25 (2014)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    S. Sze, K.K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, Hoboken, 2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    M.W.R. Dreslinski, D. Blaauw, D. Sylvester, T. Mudge, Near-threshold computing: Reclaiming Moore’s law through energy efficient integrated circuits. Proc. IEEE 98, 253–266 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    D. Markovic, C.C. Wang, L.P. Alarcon, T.T. Liu, J.M. Rabaey, Ultralow-power design in near-threshold region. Proc. IEEE 98, 237–252 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    H. Soeleman, K. Roy, B. Paul, Robust Ultra-low Power Sub-threshold DTMOS Logic, in Islped ’00: Proceedings of the 2000 International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design, (IEEE, New York, 2000), pp. 25–30Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. Fisher, A. Teman, D. Vaysman, A. Gertsman, O. Yadid-Pecht, Ultra-low Power Subthreshold Flip-flop Design, in Iscas: 2009 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, vol. 1-5, (IEEE, New York, 2009), pp. 1573–1576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    S. Fisher, A. Teman, D. Vaysman, A. Gertsman, O. Yadid-Pecht, A. Fish, Digital Subthreshold Logic Design - Motivation and Challenges, in 2008 IEEE 25th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel, (IEEE, New York, 2008), pp. 682–686Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    V.I. Starosel'skii, Adiabatic logic circuits: A review. Russ. Microelectron. 31, 37–58 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    A. Mishra, N. Singh, Low power circuit design using positive feedback adiabatic logic (PFAL). Int. J. Sci. Res. 3(6), 02014110 (2014)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    S. Houri, G. Billiot, M. Belleville, A. Valentian, H. Fanet, Limits of CMOS technology and interest of NEMS relays for adiabatic logic applications. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Regul. Pap. 62, 1546–1554 (2015)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    S. Younis, Asymptotically Zero Energy Computing Using Split-level Charge Recovery Logic. Doctoral Dissertation, Massachusets Institute of Technology, 1994Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    N. Weste, D. Harris, CMOS VLSI Design: A Circuits and Systems Perspectives, 4th edn. (Addison-Wesley, Boston, 2010)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    C. Pawashe, K. Lin, K.J. Kuhn, Scaling limits of electrostatic nanorelays. IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60, 2936–2942 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    A. Peschot, C. Qian, T.J.K. Liu, Nanoelectromechanical switches for low-power digital computing. Micromachines 6, 1046–1065 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    H.F.G. Pillonnet, S. Houri, Adiabatic Capacitive Logic: A Paradigm for Low-power Logic, in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, (IEEE, Baltimore, 2017)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    R.K. Kummamuru, J. Timler, G. Toth, C.S. Lent, R. Ramasubramaniam, A.O. Orlov, G.H. Bernstein, G.L. Snider, Power gain in a quantum-dot cellular automata latch. Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1332–1334 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    M.A. Ratner, Intra-molecular electron-transfer - some thoughts and possible applications. Abstr. Pap. Am. Chem. Soc. 174, 81–81 (1977)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    M. Ratner, Molecular electronics - pushing electrons around. Nature 404, 137–138 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    C.A. Mirkin, M.A. Ratner, Molecular electronics. Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 43, 719–754 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    M. Ratner, A brief history of molecular electronics. Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 378–381 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    J.P. Bergfield, M.A. Ratner, Forty years of molecular electronics: non-equilibrium heat and charge transport at the nanoscale. Phys. Status Solidi B 250, 2249–2266 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    M.A. Reed, Molecular electronics - back under control. Nat. Mater. 3, 286–287 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    M.A. Reed, Prospects for molecular-scale electronics. MRS Bull. 26, 113–120 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    M.A. Reed, Molecular-scale electronics. Proc. IEEE 87, 652–658 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    J.M. Tour, W.A. Reinerth, L. Jones, T.P. Burgin, C.W. Zhou, C.J. Muller, M.R. Deshpande, M.A. Reed, Recent advances in molecular scale electronics. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 852, 197–204 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    K. Sotthewes, V. Geskin, R. Heimbuch, A. Kumar, H.J.W. Zandvliet, Molecular electronics: the single-molecule switch and transistor. APL Mater. 2, 010701 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    C.S. Lent, P.D. Tougaw, Bistable saturation in coupled quantum-dot cells. J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6227–6233 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    C.S. Lent, P.D. Tougaw, Lines of interacting quantum-dot cells: a binary wire. J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6227–6233 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    C.S. Lent, P.D. Tougaw, W. Porod, G.H. Bernstein, Quantum cellular automata. Nanotechnology 4, 49–57 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    I. Amlani, A.O. Orlov, G.L. Snider, G.H. Bernstein, Differential charge detection for quantum-dot cellular automata. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2832–2835 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    I. Amlani, A.O. Orlov, G. Toth, G.H. Bernstein, C.S. Lent, G.L. Snider, Digital logic gate using quantum-dot cellular automata. Science 284, 289–291 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    A.O. Orlov, I. Amlani, G.H. Bernstein, C.S. Lent, G.L. Snider, Realization of a functional cell for quantum-dot cellular automata. Science 277, 928–930 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    A.O. Orlov, I. Amlani, R.K. Kummamuru, R. Ramasubramaniam, G. Toth, C.S. Lent, G.H. Bernstein, G.L. Snider, Experimental demonstration of clocked single-electron switching in quantum-dot cellular automata. Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 295–297 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    C.S. Lent, Molecular electronics – bypassing the transistor paradigm. Science 288, 1597 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    C.S. Lent, B. Isaksen, M. Lieberman, Molecular quantum-dot cellular automata. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 1056–1063 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    C.S. Lent, M. Liu, Y.H. Lu, Bennett clocking of quantum-dot cellular automata and the limits to binary logic scaling. Nanotechnology 17, 4240–4251 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    M.T. Niemier, P.M. Kogge, QCA Circuits, in Proceedings of the Ninth Great Lakes Syposium on VLSI, (IEEE, New York, 1999), pp. 118–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    M. Mitic, M.C. Cassidy, K.D. Petersson, R.P. Starrett, E. Gauja, R. Brenner, R.G. Clark, A.S. Dzurak, C. Yang, D.N. Jamieson, Demonstration of a silicon-based quantum cellular automata cell. Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 0135503 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    R.P. Cowburn, M.E. Welland, Room temperature magnetic quantum cellular automata. Science 287, 1466–1468 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    M.B. Haider, J.L. Pitters, G.A. DiLabio, L. Livadaru, J.Y. Mutus, R.A. Wolkow, Controlled coupling and occupation of silicon atomic quantum dots at room temperature. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 046805 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    R.D. Brown, J.M. Coman, J.A. Christie, R.P. Forrest, C.S. Lent, S.A. Corcelli, K.W. Henderson, S.A. Kandel, Evolution of metastable clusters into ordered structures for 1,1 '-Ferrocenedicarboxylic acid on the Au(111) surface. J. Phys. Chem. C 121, 6191–6198 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    C.S. Lent, K.W. Henderson, S.A. Kandel, S.A. Corcelli, G.L. Snider, A.O. Orlov, P.M. Kogge, M.T. Niemier, R.C. Brown, J.A. Christie, N.A. Wasio, R.C. Quardokus, R.P. Forrest, J.P. Peterson, A. Silski, D.A. Turner, E.P. Blair, Y.H. Lu, Molecular Cellular Networks: a Non von Neumann Architecture for Molecular Electronics, in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Rebooting Computing (ICRC), (IEEE, New York, 2016)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    J.A. Christie, R.P. Forrest, S.A. Corcelli, N.A. Wasio, R.C. Quardokus, R. Brown, S.A. Kandel, Y.H. Lu, C.S. Lent, K.W. Henderson, Synthesis of a neutral mixed-valence diferrocenyl carborane for molecular quantum-dot cellular automata applications. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54, 15448–15451 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    N.A. Wasio, R.C. Quardokus, R.D. Brown, R.P. Forrest, C.S. Lent, S.A. Corcelli, J.A. Christie, K.W. Henderson, S.A. Kandel, Cyclic hydrogen bonding in indole carboxylic acid clusters. J. Phys. Chem. C 119, 21011–21017 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    J. Christie, R. Forrest, S. Corcelli, N. Wasio, R. Quardokus, S. Kandel, Y.H. Lu, C. Lent, A. Oliver, K. Henderson, Molecular Switches: Exploring the Counter-ion Problem, in Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 249, (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 2015)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    R.C. Quardokus, N.A. Wasio, R.D. Brown, J.A. Christie, K.W. Henderson, R.P. Forrest, C.S. Lent, S.A. Corcelli, S.A. Kandel, Hydrogen-bonded clusters of 1,1′-ferrocenedicarboxylic acid on Au(111) are initially formed in solution. J. Chem. Phys. 142, 101927 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    R.C. Quardokus, N.A. Wasio, J.A. Christie, K.W. Henderson, R.P. Forrest, C.S. Lent, S.A. Corcelli, S.A. Kandel, Hydrogen-bonded clusters of ferrocenecarboxylic acid on Au(111). Chem. Commun. 50, 10229–10232 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    R.C. Quardokus, N.A. Wasio, R.P. Forrest, C.S. Lent, S.A. Corcelli, J.A. Christie, K.W. Henderson, S.A. Kandel, Adsorption of diferrocenylacetylene on Au(111) studied by scanning tunneling microscopy. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 6973–6981 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    H. Qi, S. Sharma, Z. Li, G.L. Snider, A.O. Orlov, C.S. Lent, T.P. Fehlner, Molecular quantum cellular automata cells. Electric field driven switching of a silicon surface bound array of vertically oriented two-dot molecular quantum cellular automata. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 15250–15259 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    H. Qi, A. Gupta, B.C. Noll, G.L. Snider, Y. Lu, C. Lent, T.P. Fehlner, Dependence of field switched ordered arrays of dinuclear mixed-valence complexes on the distance between the redox centers and the size of the counterions. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 15218–15227 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    G. Szakmany, A. Orlov, G. Bernstein, W. Porod, Single-metal nanoscale thermocouples. IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 13, 1234 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexei O. Orlov
    • 1
  • Ismo K. Hänninen
    • 1
  • César O. Campos-Aguillón
    • 1
  • Rene Celis-Cordova
    • 1
  • Michael S. McConnell
    • 1
  • Gergo P. Szakmany
    • 1
  • Cameron C. Thorpe
    • 1
  • Brian T. Appleton
    • 1
  • Graham P. Boechler
    • 1
  • Craig S. Lent
    • 1
  • Gregory L. Snider
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA

Personalised recommendations