Advertisement

Epidemiology of Hepatitis B

  • Natalia Pshenichnaya
  • Vladimir Chulanov
  • Hakan Leblebicioglu
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter the global distribution and contemporary trends of the prevalence of hepatitis B in the different regions of the world were described. Analysis of the relationship between HBV prevalence and income, also vaccination campaign of infants and children under 5 years old, is presented. Specific attention was paid on the distribution of hepatitis B among risk groups (intravenous drug users, men who have sex with men, indigenous peoples and minorities, prisoners, migrants, blood donors, health-care workers, coinfection with HIV infection and hepatitis C). Gaps and problems in the study of hepatitis B epidemiology and prophylaxis and future trends and prognosis of the spread of HBV in the world are discussed.

Keywords

Hepatitis B virus Epidemiology Seroprevalence Burden of disease Distribution Group risk Income Vaccination campaign 

References

  1. 1.
    Resolution WHA58.13. Blood safety: proposal to establish World Blood Donor Day. In: Fifty-eighth World Health Assembly, Geneva, 16–25 May 2005. Resolutions and decisions, annexes. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005. http://www.who.int/bloodsafety/WHA58_13-en.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 10 Dec 2017.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hutin Y, Chen RT. Injection safety: a global challenge. Bull World Health Organ. 1999;77(10):787–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    World Health Organization. Global hepatitis report 2017. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schweitzer A, Horn J, Mikolajczyk RT, Krause G, Ott JJ. Estimations of worldwide prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection: a systematic review of data published between 1965 and 2013. Lancet. 2015;386(10003):1546–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The ABCs of Hepatitis. 2012. http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/Resources/Professionals/PDFs/ABCTable_BW.pdf. Accessed 10 Dec 2017.
  6. 6.
    Lavanchy D. Hepatitis B virus epidemiology, disease burden, treatment, and current and emerging prevention and control measures. J Viral Hepat. 2004;11(2):97–107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 Collaborators. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2013. Lancet. 2015;386(9995):743–800.; published online June 7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60692-4.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Franco E, Bagnato B, Marino MG, Meleleo C, Serino L, Zaratti L. Hepatitis B: epidemiology and prevention in developing countries. World J Hepatol. 2012;4(3):74.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hope VD, Eramova I, Capurro D, Donoghoe MC. Prevalence and estimation of hepatitis B and C infections in the WHO European region: a review of data focusing on the countries outside the European Union and the European free trade association. Epidemiol Infect. 2014;142(2):270–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liang X, Bi S, Yang W, Wang L, Cui G, Cui F, Wang F. Epidemiological serosurvey of hepatitis B in China—declining HBV prevalence due to hepatitis B vaccination. Vaccine. 2009;27(47):6550–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Musa BM, Bussell S, Borodo MM, Samaila AA, Femi OL. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in Nigeria, 2000-2013: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Niger J Clin Pract. 2015;18(2):163–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Beasley RP, Trepo C, Stevens CE, Szmuness W. The e antigen and vertical transmission of hepatitis B surface antigen. Am J Epidemiol. 1977;105(2):94–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    World Health Organization. World health statistics 2016: monitoring health for the SDGs, sustainable development goals. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/206498/1/9789241565264_eng.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 10 Dec 2017.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nelson PK, Mathers BM, Cowie B, Hagan H, Des Jarlais D, Horyniak D, Degenhardt L. Global epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in people who inject drugs: results of systematic reviews. Lancet. 2011;378(9791):571–83.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Van Houdt R, van den Berg CH, Stolte IG, Bruisten SM, Dukers NH, Bakker M, et al. Two decades of hepatitis B infections among drug users in Amsterdam: are they still a high-risk group? J Med Virol. 2009;81(7):1163–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Urbanus AT, van Houdt R, van de Laar TJ, Coutinho RA. Viral hepatitis among men who have sex with men, epidemiology and public health consequences. Euro Surveill. 2009;14(47):19421.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lavanchy D. Worldwide epidemiology of HBV infection, disease burden, and vaccine prevention. J Clin Virol. 2005;34(Suppl 1):S1–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sloan RD, Strang AL, Ramsay ME, Teo CG. Genotyping of acute HBV isolates from England, 1997-2001. J Clin Virol. 2009;44(2):157–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Van Houdt R, Bruisten SM, Geskus RB, Bakker M, Wolthers KC, Prins M, Coutinho RA. Ongoing transmission of a single hepatitis B virus strain among men having sex with men in Amsterdam. J Viral Hepat. 2010;17(2):108–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Koibuchi T, Hitani A, Nakamura T, Nojiri N, Nakajima K, Jyuji T, Iwamoto A. Predominance of genotype A HBV in an HBV-HIV-1 dually positive population compared with an HIV-1-negative counterpart in Japan. J Med Virol. 2001;64(4):435–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sherman M. Strategies for managing coinfection with hepatitis B virus and HIV. Cleve Clin J Med. 2009;76(Suppl 3):S30–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Veselíny E, Janicko M, Drazilová S, et al. High hepatitis B and low hepatitis C prevalence in Roma population in eastern Slovakia. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2014;22(Suppl):S51–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Michos A, Terzidis A, Kalampoki V, Pantelakis K, Spanos T, Petridou ET. Seroprevalence and risk factors for hepatitis A, B, and C among Roma and non-Roma children in a deprived area of Athens, Greece. J Med Virol. 2008;80:791–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pan American Health Organization. Hepatitis B and C in the spotlight. A public health response in the Americas, 2016. Washington: Pan American Health Organization; 2016. updated Jan 2017. http://iris.paho.org/xmlui/handle/123456789/31449. Accessed 10 Dec 2017.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Murhekar MV, Murhekar KM, Sehgal SC. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection among the tribes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102:729–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Graham S, Guy RJ, Cowie B, Wand HC, Donovan B, Akre SP, et al. Chronic hepatitis B prevalence among aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians since universal vaccination: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:403.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    McMahon BJ. Viral hepatitis in the Arctic. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2004;63(Suppl 2):41–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ott J, Stevens G, Groeger J, Wiersma ST. Global epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection: new estimates of age-specific HBsAg seroprevalence and endemicity. Vaccine. 2012;30(12):2212–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Systematic review on hepatitis B and C prevalence in the EU/EEA. Stockholm: ECDC; 2016. http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/Publications/systematic-review-hepatitis-B-C-prevalence.pdf. Accessed 10 Dec 2017.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dolan K, Wirtz AL, Moazen B, Ndeffo-mbah M, Galvani A, Kinner SA, Hellard M. Global burden of HIV, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis in prisoners and detainees. Lancet. 2016;388(10049):1089–102.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Allwright S, Bradley F, Long J, Barry J, Thornton L, Parry JV. Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV and risk factors in Irish prisoners: results of a national cross sectional survey. BMJ. 2016;321(7253):78–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Decker MD, Vaughn WK, Brodie JS, Hutcheson RH Jr, Schaffner W. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B in Tennessee prisoners. J Infect Dis. 1984;150(3):450–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kazi AM, Shah SA, Jenkins CA, Shepherd BE, Vermund SH. Risk factors and prevalence of tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus among prisoners in Pakistan. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14:e60–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nokhodian Z, Yazdani MR, Yaran M, Shoaei P, Mirian M, Ataei B, Ataie M. Prevalence and risk factors of HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B and C among female prisoners in Isfahan, Iran. Hepat Mon. 2016;12(7):442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dana D, Zary N, Peyman A, Behrooz A. Risk prison and hepatitis B virus infection among inmates with history of drug injection in Isfahan, Iran. Sci World J. 2013;2013:735761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Reekie JM, Levy MH, Richards AH, et al. Trends in HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C prevalence among Australian prisoners—2004, 2007, 2010. Med J Aust. 2014;200:277–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rossi C, Shrier I, Marshall L, Cnossen S, Schwartzman K, Klein MB, Greenaway C. Seroprevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and prior immunity in immigrants and refugees: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e44611.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    World Health Organization. Global status report on blood safety and availability 2016. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/254987/1/9789241565431-eng.pdf. Accessed 10 Dec 2017.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    WHO, CDC, IFRC. Blood donor counselling: implementation guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014. http://www.who.int/bloodsafety/voluntary_donation/Blooddonorcounselling.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 10 Dec 2017.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Prüss-Ustün A, Rapiti E, Hutin Y. Estimation of the global burden of disease attributable to contaminated sharps injuries among health-care workers. Am J Ind Med. 2005;48(6):482–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Coppola N, De Pascalis S, Onorato L, Calò F, Sagnelli C, Sagnelli E. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection in healthcare workers. World J Hepatol. 2016;8:273–81.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gerberding JL. Incidence and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and cytomegalovirus among health care personnel at risk for blood exposure: final report from a longitudinal study. J Infect Dis. 1994;170(6):1410–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Squadrito G, Orlando ME, Pollicino T, et al. Virological profiles in patients with chronic hepatitis C and overt or occult HBV infection. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97:1518–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gaeta GB, Stornaiuolo G, Precone DF, Lobello S, Chiaramonte M, Stroffolini T, Rizzetto M. Epidemiological and clinical burden of chronic hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus infection. A multicenter Italian study. J Hepatol. 2003;39:1036–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chu CJ, Lee SD. Hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection: epidemiology, clinical features, viral interactions and treatment. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23(4):512–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Natalia Pshenichnaya
    • 1
    • 2
  • Vladimir Chulanov
    • 3
  • Hakan Leblebicioglu
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Infectious DiseasesRostov State Medical UniversityRostov-on-DonRussia
  2. 2.Department of Infectious Diseases and ParasitologyRostov Scientific Research Institute of Microbiology and ParasitologyRostov-on-DonRussia
  3. 3.Reference Center for Viral HepatitisCentral Research Institute of EpidemiologyMoscowRussia
  4. 4.Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical MicrobiologyOndokuz Mayis University Medical SchoolSamsunTurkey

Personalised recommendations