Technology Management and Policy of Kurdistan Region of Iraq

  • Nabaz Khayyat
Part of the Middle East Today book series (MIET)


In this chapter, the importance of upgrading KRI’s industrial structure to be able to generate more value-added products for maintaining the process of economic development is discussed. Khayyat claims that this process requires advancement in technological capabilities to employ and engross more urbane technologies. Thus, this advancement in technological capabilities needed to build a national innovation system, its activities should include but not limited to hardware and software purchases, industrial design and engineering activities, employing up to date machinery, equipment, and other capital goods, in-house software development, and finally the ability to conduct reverse engineering. In addition to this, Nabaz Khayyat shows the importance of investing in human development in terms of training and tertiary education, which should be applied in KRI for state building process.


  1. Aernoudt, R. 2004. Incubators: Tool for Entrepreneurship? Small Business Economics 23 (2): 127–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersson, U., M. Forsgren, and U. Holm. 2002. The Strategic Impact of External Networks: Subsidiary Performance and Competence Development in the Multinational Corporation. Strategic Management Journal 23 (11): 979–996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aydalot, P., and D. Keeble. 1988. High Technology Industry and Innovative Environments: The European Experience. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Castellacci, F., and J.M. Natera. 2013. The Dynamics of National Innovation Systems: A Panel Cointegration Analysis of the Coevolution Between Innovative Capability and Absorptive Capacity. Research Policy 42 (3): 579–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dodgson, M. 2018. Technological Collaboration in Industry: Strategy, Policy and Internationalization in Innovation, vol. 11. London, New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Edquist, C. 2010. Systems of Innovation Perspectives and Challenges. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 2 (3): 14–45.Google Scholar
  7. Eriksson, M., V.-P. Niitamo, and S. Kulkki. 2005. State-of-the-Art in Utilizing Living Labs Approach to User-Centric ICT Innovation-a European Approach. Lulea: Center for Distance-Spanning Technology (Lulea University of Technology Sweden: Lulea).Google Scholar
  8. Heshmati, A. 2012. The Economy of Southern Kurdistan. New York: Nova Science Publishers Inc.Google Scholar
  9. Hong, J., and J. Lu. 2016. Assessing the Effectiveness of Business Incubators in Fostering SMEs: Evidence from China. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management 20 (1–2): 45–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jan, T.-S., and C.-T. Hsiao. 2004. A Four-Role Model of the Automotive Industry Development in Developing Countries: A Case in Taiwan. Journal of the Operational Research Society 55 (11): 1145–1155. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Khayyat, N.T. 2012. Establishment of Hawler Science and Technology Park. In Perspectives on Kurdistan Economy and Society in Transition, ed. A. Heshmati, A. Dilani, and S. Baban. New Castle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  12. Khayyat, N.T., and J.-D. Lee. 2015. A Measure of Technological Capabilities for Developing Countries. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 92: 210–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lee, J.-D., and C. Baek. 2012. The Industrial and Technology Policies of Korea from the Perspective of Design Principles. Asian Journal of Technology Innovation 20 (1): 97–112. Scholar
  14. Middleton, C.A., and A. Bryne. 2011. An Exploration of User-Generated Wireless Broadband Infrastructures in Digital Cities. Telematics and Informatics 28 (3): 163–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mostafa, R., and S. Klepper. 2018. Industrial Development Through Tacit Knowledge Seeding: Evidence from the Bangladesh Garment Industry. Management Science 64 (2): 613–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mytelka, L.K. 2000. Local Systems of Innovation in a Globalized World Economy. Industry and Innovation 7 (1): 15–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Petersen, A.M., D. Rotolo, and L. Leydesdorff. 2016. A Triple Helix Model of Medical Innovation: Supply, Demand, and Technological Capabilities in Terms of Medical Subject Headings. Research Policy 45 (3): 666–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Whalley, J. 2016. Developing Countries and the Global Trading System: Volume 1 Thematic Studies from a Ford Foundation Project. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nabaz Khayyat
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Economics and FinanceUniversity of Kurdistan Hewler-Kurdistan Business SchoolErbilIraq
  2. 2.School of BusinessUniversity of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK

Personalised recommendations