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The Baltics: Between Competition and Cooperation

  • Vija PakalkaitėEmail author
  • Joshua Posaner
Chapter
Part of the International Political Economy Series book series (IPES)

Abstract

The three Baltic countries—Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia—have previously been viewed as energy islands, faced with several energy security challenges such as import dependence on Russia and the need to adapt to EU regulations. Although the tactical objectives of the Baltic countries have differed, they have managed to reduce their energy vulnerability and have put an end to their isolation in recent years. The European Commission moved the Baltics towards greater integration of their energy markets with that of the EU at large. This policy has had a dual effect, as it has both encouraged the development of physical infrastructure and put pressure on the Baltic states to act as a single cohesive unit, something they have often not done on energy policy.

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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ICIS, EU Carbon and PowerKarlsruheGermany
  2. 2.POLITICO EuropeBerlinGermany

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