The Role and Importance of Timely Radical Cystectomy for High-Risk Non-muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

  • Daniel J. Lee
  • Sam S. ChangEmail author
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 175)


Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer accounts for the majority of incident bladder cancers but is a heterogeneous disease with variation in clinical presentation, course, and outcomes. Risk stratification techniques have attempted to identify those at highest risk of cancer recurrence and progression to help personalize and individualize treatment options. Radical cystectomy during the optimal window of curability could improve cancer outcomes; however, identifying the disease and patient characteristics as well as the correct timing to intervene remains difficult. We review the natural history of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, discuss different risk-stratification techniques and how they can help identify those most likely to benefit from radical treatment, and examine the evidence supporting the benefit of timely cystectomy.


Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer Timely cystectomy Early cystectomy Micropapillary bladder cancer High-risk bladder cancer 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Urologic SurgeryVanderbilt University Medical CenterNashvilleUSA

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