• Emily Nicholls
Part of the Genders and Sexualities in the Social Sciences book series (GSSS)


As has become increasingly evident throughout this book, the girls’ night out clearly offers specific and nuanced ways in which to do femininities and friendships which are not present in other types of night out, and perhaps also specific types of pressures to do femininity. Whilst the NTE is increasingly recognised as a useful avenue through which to research young people’s lives, less attention has been given to the girls’ night out as a specific type of engagement with the NTE that may illuminate nuances in the ways in which young women ‘do’ gender and femininities. This book thus marks a unique contribution within a wider body of research on young people’s drinking and clubbing. This concluding chapter will pull together the main arguments outlined throughout this book, highlighting the tensions and contradictions embedded in young women’s negotiations of femininity and the ways in which these reflect the idea that the successful embodiment of ‘girly’ and ‘girliness’ is simultaneously something that is desired yet derided.


  1. Allan, A. (2010). Picturing success: young femininities and the (im)possibilities of academic achievement in selective, single-sex education. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 20(1), pp. 39–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atkinson, A. M. and Sumnall, H. R. (2016). ‘If I don’t look good, it just doesn’t go up’: A qualitative study of young women’s drinking cultures and practices on Social Network Sites. International Journal of Drug Policy, 38, pp. 50–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartky, S. L. (2003). Foucault, Femininity, and the Modernization of Patriarchal Power. In R. Weitz (Ed.) The politics of women’s bodies: Sexuality, appearance and behaviour (pp. 25–45). 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Batchelor, S. A., Kitzinger, J. and Burtney, E. (2004). Representing young people’s sexuality in the ‘youth’ media. Health Education Research, 19(6), pp. 669–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernhardsson, J. and Bogren, A. (2012). Drink sluts, brats and immigrants as others: An analysis of Swedish media discourse on gender, alcohol and rape. Feminist Media Studies, 12(1), pp. 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bordo, S. (1993). Unbearable weight: Feminism, western culture, and the body. 10th anniversary edn. London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  7. Boyd, J. (2010). Producing Vancouver’s (hetero)normative nightscape. Gender, Place & Culture, 17(2), pp. 169–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brain, K. (2000). Youth, alcohol and the emergence of the post-modern alcohol order [online]. Institute of Alcohol Studies, Occasional Paper January 2000. Available at
  9. Brooks, O. (2011). ‘Guys! Stop doing it!’: Young women’s adoption and rejection of safety advice when socializing in bars, pubs and clubs. British Journal of Criminology, 51(4), pp. 635–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buckley, C. and Fawcett, H. (2002). Fashioning the feminine: Representation and women’s fashion from the fin de siecle to the present. London: I. B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  11. Budgeon, S. (2014). The dynamics of gender hegemony: Femininities, masculinities and social change. Sociology, 48(2), pp.317–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Campbell, H. (2000). The glass phallus: Pub(lic) masculinity and drinking in rural New Zealand. Rural Sociology, 64(4), pp. 562–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Casey, M. (2004). De-dyking queer space(S): Heterosexual female visibility in gay and lesbian spaces. Sexualities, 7(4), pp. 446–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chatterton, P. and Hollands, R. (2003). Urban nightscapes: Youth cultures, pleasure spaces and corporate power. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Day, K., Gough, B. and McFadden, M. (2003). Women who drink and fight: A discourse analysis of working-class women’s talk. Feminism & Psychology, 13(2), pp. 141–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Day, K., Gough, B. and McFadden, M. (2004). “WARNING! ALCOHOL CAN SERIOUSLY DAMAGE YOUR FEMININE HEALTH”: A discourse analysis of recent British newspaper coverage of women and drinking. Feminist Media Studies, 4(2), pp. 165–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dobson, A. S. (2014). “Sexy” and “laddish” girls. Feminist Media Studies, 14(2), pp. 253–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Emslie, C., Hunt, K. and Lyons, A. (2015). Transformation and time-out: The role of alcohol in identity construction among Scottish women in early midlife. International Journal of Drug Policy, 26(5), pp. 437–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eventbrite (2017). Brighter futures: Challenging perceptions of millennials [online]. Available at
  20. Francombe, J. (2014). Learning to leisure: femininity and practices of the body. Leisure Studies, 33(6), pp. 580–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Genz, S. (2015). My job is me: postfeminist celebrity culture and the gendering of authenticity. Feminist Media Studies, 15(4), pp. 545–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gofton, L. (1990). On the town: drink and the ‘new lawlessness’. Youth and Policy, 29, pp. 33–39.Google Scholar
  23. Gonick, M. (2004). Old plots and new identities: Ambivalent femininities in late modernity. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 25(2), pp. 189–209.Google Scholar
  24. Goodwin, I., Griffin, C., Lyons, A., McCreanor, T. and Barnes, H. M. (2016). Precarious popularity: Facebook drinking photos, the attention economy, and the regime of the branded self. Social Media + Society, 2(1), pp. 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Graefer, A. (2014). ‘Charlotte makes me lafe [sic] sooo much’: Online laughter, affect, and femininity in Geordie Shore. Journal of European Popular Culture, 5(2), pp. 105–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Griffin, C., Szmigin, I., Bengry-Howell, A., Hackley, C. and Mistral, W. (2013). Inhabiting the Contradictions: Hypersexual Femininity and the Culture of Intoxication among Young Women in the UK. Feminism & Psychology, 23(2), pp. 184–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Haydock, W. (2009). Gender, Class and ‘Binge’ Drinking: An Ethnography of Drinkers in Bournemouth’s Night-Time Economy. PhD thesis. Bournemouth University.Google Scholar
  28. Haydock, W. (2015). Understanding English alcohol policy as a neoliberal condemnation of the carnivalesque. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 22(2), pp. 143–149.Google Scholar
  29. Held, N. (2015). Comfortable and safe spaces? Gender, sexuality and ‘race’ in night-time leisure spaces. Emotion, Space and Society, 14, pp.33–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Henderson, K. A. and Gibson, H. J. (2013). An integrative review of women, gender and leisure: Increasing complexities. Journal of Leisure Research, 45(2), pp. 115–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Holland, J., Ramazanoglu, C., Sharpe, S. and Thomson, R. (2004). The male in the head: Young people, heterosexuality and power. 2nd edn. London: Tufnell.Google Scholar
  32. Holland, S. (2004). Alternative femininities: Body, age and identity. Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
  33. Holland, S. and Harpin, J. (2015). Who is the ‘girly’ girl? Tomboys, hyper-femininity and gender. Journal of Gender Studies, 24(3), pp 293–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hollands, R. and Chatterton, P. (2002). Changing times for an old industrial city: Hard times, hedonism and corporate power in Newcastle’s nightlife. City, 6(3), pp. 291–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Holt, M. and Griffin, C. (2005). Students versus locals: Young adults’ constructions of the working-class other. British Journal of Social Psychology, 44(2), pp. 241–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hunt, G. P. (1991). The middle class revisited: Eating and drinking in an English village. Western Folklore, 50(4), pp. 401–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hunt, G., Moloney, M., and Evans, K. (2010). Youth, drugs, and nightlife. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  38. Hutton, F. (2006). Risky pleasures? Club cultures and feminine identities. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  39. Hutton, F. (2012). Harm reduction, students and pleasure: An examination of student responses to a binge drinking campaign. International Journal of Drug Policy, 23(3), pp. 229–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hutton, F., Griffin, C., Lyons, A., Niland, P. and McCreanor, T. (2016). “Tragic girls” and “crack whores”: Alcohol, femininity and Facebook. Feminism & Psychology, 26(1), pp. 73–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jackson, S. and Scott, S. (2010). Theorizing sexuality. Maidenhead: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Jayne, M., Valentine, G. and Holloway, S. L. (2011). Alcohol, drinking and drunkenness: (Dis)orderly spaces. Ashgate: Farnham.Google Scholar
  43. Kavanaugh, P. R. (2013). The continuum of sexual violence: Women’s accounts of victimization in urban nightlife. Feminist Criminology, 8(1), pp. 20–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kehily, M. J. (2008). Taking centre stage? Girlhood and the contradictions of femininity across three generations. Girlhood Studies, 1(2), pp. 51–71.Google Scholar
  45. Kovac, L. D. and Trussell, D. E. (2015). ‘Classy and never trashy’: Young women’s experiences of nightclubs and the construction of gender and sexuality. Leisure Sciences, 37, pp. 195–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lawler, S. (2005). Disgusted Subjects: The Making of Middle-Class Identities. The Sociological Review, 53(3), pp. 429–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lazar, M. M. (2009). Entitled to consume: postfeminist femininity and a culture of post-critique. Discourse & Communication, 3(4), pp. 371–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lindsay, J. (2006). A big night out in Melbourne: Drinking as an enactment of class and gender. Contemporary Drug Problems, 33(1), pp. 29–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lyons, A. C. and Willott, S. A. (2008). Alcohol consumption, gender identities and women’s changing social positions. Sex Roles, 59(9–10), pp. 694–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Malbon, B. (1999). Clubbing: dancing, ecstasy and vitality. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. McRobbie, A. (2007). Top Girls? Young women and the post-feminist sexual contract. Cultural Studies, 21(4–5), pp. 718–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mendick, H., Allen, K., Harvey, L. and Ahmad, A. (2018). Celebrity, aspiration and contemporary youth: Education and inequality in an era of austerity. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  53. Nayak, A. (2003). Last of the ‘real Geordies’? White masculinities and the subcultural response to deindustrialisation. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 21(1), pp. 7–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nicholls, E. (2017). ‘Dulling it down a bit’: managing visibility, sexualities and risk in the Night Time Economy in Newcastle, UK. Gender, Place & Culture, 24(2), pp. 260–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pini, M. (2001). Club cultures and female subjectivity: The move from home to house. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Reay, D. (2001). ‘Spice girls’, ‘nice girls’, ‘girlies’, and ‘tomboys’: Gender discourses, girls’ cultures and femininities in the primary classroom. Gender and Education, 13(2), pp. 153–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Riches, G., Lashua, B. and Spracklen, K. (2014). ‘Female, mosher, transgressor: A ‘moshography’ of transgressive practices within the Leeds extreme metal scene’. Journal of the International Association for the Study of Popular Music, 4(1), pp. 87–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ringrose, J. and Walkerdine, V. (2008). Regulating the abject: the TV make-over as site of neo-liberal reinvention toward bourgeois femininity. Feminist Media Studies, 8(3), pp. 227–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rúdólfsdóttir, A. G. and Morgan, P. (2009). ‘Alcohol is my friend’: Young middle class women discuss their relationship with alcohol. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 19(6), pp. 492–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Russo, M. (1995). The female grotesque. Risk, excess and modernity. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  61. Scraton, S. and Watson, B. (1998). Gendered cities: women and public leisure space in the ‘postmodern city’. Leisure Studies, 17(2), pp. 123–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Skeggs, B. (1999). Matter out of place: Visibility and sexualities in leisure spaces. Leisure Studies, 18(3), pp. 213–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Skeggs, B. (2005). The making of class and gender through visualizing moral subject formation. Sociology, 39(5), pp. 965–982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Smelik, A. (2011). The performance of authenticity. Address. Journal for Fashion Writing and Criticism. 1(1), pp. 76–82.Google Scholar
  65. Smith, O. (2014). Contemporary adulthood and the Night-Time Economy. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Stepney, M. (2014). The rise and fall of ‘’: Dilemmas and opportunities when creating online forums to investigate health behaviour. Health & Place, 27, pp. 51–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stepney, M. (2015). The challenge of hyper-sexual femininity and binge drinking: A feminist psychoanalytic response. Subjectivity, 8(1), pp. 57–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Talbot, D. (2004). Regulation and racial differentiation in the construction of night-time economies: a London case study. Urban Studies, 41(4), pp. 887–901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tan, Q. H. (2014). Postfeminist possibilities: Unpacking the paradoxical performances of heterosexualized femininity in club spaces. Social & Cultural Geography, 15(1), pp. 23–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Thornton, S. (1995). Club cultures. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  71. Twigg, J. (2012). Adjusting the cut: Fashion, the body and age on the UK high street. Ageing and Society, 32(6), pp. 1030–1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ussher, J. M. (1997). Fantasies of femininity: Reframing the boundaries of sex. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  73. Valentine, G., and Harris, C. (2014). Strivers vs skivers: Class prejudice and the demonisation of dependency in everyday life. Geoforum, 53, pp. 84–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Watson, B. and Scraton, S. J. (2013). Leisure studies and intersectionality. Leisure Studies, 32(1), pp. 35–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. White, J. (2016). Generation clean. New Scientist, 232(3102), pp. 38–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Winlow, S. and Hall, S. (2009). Living for the weekend: Youth identities in Northeast England. Ethnography, 10(1), pp. 91–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Woods, F. (2014). Classed femininity, performativity, and camp in British structured reality programming. Television & New Media, 15(3), pp. 197–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zajdow, G. and MacLean, S. (2014). “I just drink for that tipsy stage”: Young adults and embodied management of alcohol use. Contemporary Drug Problems, 41(4), pp. 522–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emily Nicholls
    • 1
  1. 1.University of PortsmouthPortsmouthUK

Personalised recommendations