The breast, a modified sweat gland and target for different hormones, lies on the anterior chest wall over the pectoralis major muscle and has the specialized function of feeding the newborn infant. The breast displays various morphologic alteration throughout the reproductive life cycle (menarche, pregnancy, lactation, and menopause, in addition to maternal hormonal effects in utero). By understanding its normal morphology, normal changes, and immunohistochemical profile, breast pathologists are better able to identify and diagnose breast lesions, also by using ancillary examinations. A variety of abnormalities can occur during the development of the breast, most of which can be easily corrected with the help of cosmetic surgery.
Histology Breast Immunohistochemical stains
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Schnitt SJ, Collins L. Biopsy interpretation of the breast. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2009. p. 1.Google Scholar
Chiriac A, Moldovan C, Coros MF, Podoleanu C, Moncea D, Stolnicu S. Bilateral areolar sebaceous hyperplasia in a post-menopausal woman. Eur J Dermatol. 2016;26(3):299–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Cserni G. Benign apocrine papillary lesions of the breast lacking or virtually lacking myoepithelial cells—potential pitfalls in diagnosing malignancy. APMIS. 2012;120(3):249–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Rosen PP. Rosen’s breast pathology. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2009. p. 8.Google Scholar
Moinfar F. Essentials of diagnostic breast pathology. New York, NY: Springer; 2007. p. 236.Google Scholar
Tavassoli FA. Pathology of the breast. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1999.Google Scholar
Zilli L, Stefani G. Unilateral agenesis of the pectoralis muscle associated with mammary hypoplasia. Friuli Med. 1960;15:1522–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Breslau-Siderius EJ, Toonstra J, Baart JA, Koppeschar HP, Maassen JA, Beemer FA. Ectodermal dysplasia, lipoatrophy, diabetes mellitus and amastia. A second case of AREDYLD syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1992;44:374–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Trier WC. Complete breast absence. Case report and review of the literature. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1965;36:431–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Wolf Y, Pauzner D, Groutz A, Walman I, David MP. Gigantomastia complicating pregnancy. Case report and review of the literature. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1995;74:159–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Lui A, Karter D, Turett G. Another case of breast hypertrophy in a patient treated with indinavir. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;26:1482.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Levy RL. Adenocarcinoma of the mammary chain. Breast Dis. 1994;7:383–6.Google Scholar