Preparation for Reusing, Recycling, Recovering, and Landfilling: Waste Hierarchy Steps After Waste Collection

  • Ana Pires
  • Graça Martinho
  • Susana Rodrigues
  • Maria Isabel Gomes


The less useful operations in accordance to waste hierarchy principle will be driven in this section. Reusing, recycling, treating, and landfilling are all operation options for waste, which need to be considered regarding its impact on the environment and how their management can potentiate a better use of resources. A brief review on the concepts is presented, in the light of European waste management definitions and existing technologies.


WHP MSW Upcycling Downcycling Incineration Biological treatment End-of-waste criteria 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Pires
    • 1
  • Graça Martinho
    • 1
  • Susana Rodrigues
    • 1
  • Maria Isabel Gomes
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Sciences and TechnologyUniversidade NOVA de Lisboa (FCT NOVA)CaparicaPortugal

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