Operation and Monitoring

  • Ana Pires
  • Graça Martinho
  • Susana Rodrigues
  • Maria Isabel Gomes


The activities related with the waste collection and how they impact on the waste management systems need to be conducted in a sustainable and efficient way. The waste collection needs to be affordable for users, although respecting all regulations applicable to the waste collection, with low environmental impact and respecting workers. Efficient collection of waste requires that data is collected and processed to analyze the actual situation and where improvements can be made to reach the efficiency needed. The purpose of this chapter is to present the existent instruments to analyze the operation and monitor a waste collection system: route analysis and optimization tools and performance indicators.

An indicator is an elementary datum or a simple combination of data capable of measuring an observed phenomenon, providing information that is typical of, and critical to the quality of target issues (Peterson and Granados, Environ Sci Pollut Res 9:204–214, 2002; Resour Conserv Recycl 52:1322–1328, 2008). A suitable indicator must fulfill criteria as relevant, credible, functional, quantifiable, and comparable within different time and space scales (EEA, EEA core set of indicators – guide. Copenhagen, 2005; Key environmental indicators). Indicator sets have been developed to evaluate aspects such as the state and evolution of general and specific environments, policy objectives, the environmental behavior of individual technologies and products, critical economic individual sectors, multi-sectorial analysis, global manufacturing, and management systems. Recently they have also been applied to organizational methods, products, services, and systems in an eco-innovation context (OECD, Eco-innovation in industry enabling green growth; Eco-innovation: when sustainability and competitiveness shake hands. Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire, 2009).


Benchmarking Collection rate Economic indicators LCA Logistics Participation rate Performance Social indicators Waste generation 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Pires
    • 1
  • Graça Martinho
    • 1
  • Susana Rodrigues
    • 1
  • Maria Isabel Gomes
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Sciences and TechnologyUniversidade NOVA de Lisboa (FCT NOVA)CaparicaPortugal

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