Curtailing Agriculture Projects’ Practices That Can Harm Urban Food Security and Public Health

  • Frederic R. Siegel
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Geography book series (BRIEFSGEOGRAPHY)


Many old and “modern” cities have been built on terrain that was previously vegetated and part of biologically diverse ecosystems. This was often on productive farmland that was not protected from encroachment as municipalities expanded and opened pristine areas to development. The encroachment continues as rural citizens and their families are attracted to urban centers for the way of life they seemed to offer. This starts with employment possibilities, education for workers children, and family health services as manufacturing/industrial operations and large and small businesses that serviced them spurs economic development. Agricultural projects are located mainly away from population centers, be they major metropolises or smaller cities. They provide food security for urban citizens through “brought into markets” in-ground crops, bush crops, and tree crops they cultivate, and through animal husbandry (e.g., beef and dairy cattle, poultry, hogs, sheep). The last chapter described how manufacturing/industrial endeavors can present potential harm to the health of urban and rural citizens and to natural resource rich ecosystems that help sustain them, and how to find solutions to the problems. This chapter will discuss the problems that food production methods present, the threats they pose to urban populations that are generally distant from them, and possible solutions to such problems.


  1. 1.
    Chang, Q., Wang, W., Regev-Yochay, G., Lipsitch, M., & Hanage, W. P. (2015). Antibiotics in agriculture and the risk to human health: How worried should we be? Evolutionary Applications, 8, 240–247. Scholar
  2. 2.
    HM Government and Wellcome Trust. (2014). O’Neill, J., Chair. Review on antimicrobial resistance. .Antimicrobial resistance: Tackling a crisis for the health and wealth of nations. 15 p.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Katrime Integrated Health. (2016). The role of human health and animal health in antimicrobial resistance. National Collaborating Centre for Infectious Diseases, 13 p. Online
  4. 4.
    Zdziarski, I. M., Edwards, J. W., Carman, J. A., & Haynes, J. I. (2014). GM crops and the rat digestive tract: A critical review. Environment International, 73, 423–433. Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tabashnik, B., & Carriere, Y. (2017). Insect resistance to transgenic crops: Second decade surge and future prospects. Nature Biotechnology, 35, 926. Scholar
  6. 6.
    University of Arizona. (2017). Pest resistance to biotech crops surging. Summary of above reference. In Science Daily, Oct. 10. Unpaginated.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shaw, J. (2018). A new green revolution? Harvard Magazine, March–April, pp. 44–48.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fleming, R., & Ford, M. (2001). Humans versus animals – Comparison of waste properties. 4 p. Online.;eming_huvsanim0107.PDF
  9. 9.
    Alberta, Agriculture and Forestry. (2005). Manure composting manual. Unpaginated, Online.
  10. 10.
    Augustin, C., & Rahman, S. (2010). Composting animal manures: A guide to the process and management of animal manure compost. North Dakota State University, 8 p. Online.
  11. 11.
    The Daily Record. (2017, November 9). Perdue farms now selling recycled poultry manure as fertilizer. Online. After Associated Press, 2011, May 10.
  12. 12.
    Nickson, R. T., McArthur, J. M., Ravencroft, P., Burgess, W. G., & Ahmed, K. M. (2000). Mechanism of arsenic release to groundwater, Bangladesh and West Bengal. Applied Geochemistry, 15, 403–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    American Public Health Association. (2009). Opposition to the use of hormone growth promoters in beef and dairy cattle production. Policy No. 20098.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    American Cancer Society. (2014). Recombinant bovine growth hormone. Online.
  15. 15.
    Aksglaede, L., Sorensen, K., Petersen, J. H., Shakkebaek, N. E., & Juul, A. (2009). Recent decline in age at breast development: The Copenhagen puberty study. Pediatrics, 123, e933–e939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Swan, S. H., Liu, F., Overstreet, J. W., Brazil, C., & Shakkebaek, N. E. (2007). Semen quality of fertile US males in relation to their mothers’ beef consumption during pregnancy. Human Reproduction, 22, 1497–1502. Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hollis, A., & Ahmed, Z. (2013). Preserving antibiotics rationally. New England Journal of Medicine, 369, 2474–2476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Katrime Integrated Health. (2016). The role of human health and animal health in antimicrobial resistance. Winnipeg, MN: National Collaborating Centre for Infectious Diseases 13 p.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
    World Bank. (2013). Fish to 2030 – Prospects for fisheries and aquaculture. World Bank report no. 83177-GLB, 80 p.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Habte-Tsion, H. M. (2016). Sustainable aquaculture development and its role in the food security and economic growth in Eritrea: Trends and prospects. Presented at the International Conference on Eritrean Studies, July 21, Asmara, Eritrea. 9 Sections. Online.

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederic R. Siegel
    • 1
  1. 1.George Washington UniversityWashington, DCUSA

Personalised recommendations