Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Migrants: Beyond the First Generation

  • Mohamed Bamoshmoosh
Part of the Updates in Hypertension and Cardiovascular Protection book series (UHCP)


Nowadays, Europe is a multicultural and multi-ethnic continent. Increasing numbers of first-generation immigrants’ offspring are born in Europe and are usually called second-generation immigrants and are part of ethnic minority groups. In Europe, research dealing with the health of first-generation immigrants is lacking, and papers that report on the health of second-generation immigrants are even more rare. An important limit is related to the fact that European countries define migrants in different ways and second-generation immigrants cannot be easily identified in administrative health data without probability linkage methods that use computerised probability-matching techniques. Moreover, it is difficult to interpret the results when second-generation immigrants are offspring of couples in mixed unions. A way to consider ethnic minority groups as an integral part of the society and to reduce discrimination and promote equity is also by taking care of second-generation immigrants’ health. These are the assumptions that led us to undertake a research upon the available literature regarding European second-generation immigrants’ cardiovascular diseases. Particular attention was given to how the acculturation process and education could interfere with second-generation immigrants’ cardiovascular health and to what extent do environment, epigenetic and genetic factors influence the development of second-generation immigrants’ cardiovascular diseases.


Cardiovascular diseases Cardiovascular risk factors Second generation Migrants Ethnic minority groups 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed Bamoshmoosh
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Science and TechnologySana’aYemen
  2. 2.Department of Clinical and Experimental MedicineUniversity of Florence Medical SchoolFlorenceItaly

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