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Screening Strategies for Type 2 Diabetes and Risk Stratification in Minorities

  • Andre Pascal KengneEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Updates in Hypertension and Cardiovascular Protection book series (UHCP)

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the fast-growing diseases of the modern and postmodern era, affecting people across the diversity of countries and ethnic groups worldwide. Undiagnosed and/or inappropriately managed, T2DM is associated with major complications including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), which are driving the cost and morbimortality related to diabetes. The onset of T2DM, related complications, and progression can be prevented and delayed through timely diagnosis and implementation of effective interventions. For this to be cost-effective, appropriate strategies are needed to identify those who are more likely to benefit from further testing and interventions. Diabetes risk screening and risk stratification have developed in the last four decades, paralleling the improvement in the understanding of the natural history of the diseases and strategies for modifying it. While the initial focus was on biochemical tests, multivariable absolute risk prediction models which have flourished in the last two decades are gaining popularities in risk stratifications for diabetes and related major complications. While the principle of screening are the same across populations and settings, the performance of risk screening tools can vary across ethnic groups, reflecting differences in natural history of the diseases and other interfering factors. It is therefore important to assess the performance of existing tools and make necessary adaptations prior to their introduction in new populations.

Keywords

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) Screening Absolute risk model Validation Discrimination Calibration 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Non-Communicable Diseases Research UnitSouth African Medical Research CouncilCape TownSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of MedicineUniversity of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa

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