The Nation of the Sur: The Yezidi Identity Between Modern and Ancient Myth

  • Artur Rodziewicz
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Cultural Heritage and Conflict book series (PSCHC)


This chapter investigates the question of the Yezidis’ identity, based on Yezidi oral works and statements about their self-identification, as well as their classification of non-Yezidis belonging to ‘seventy-two nations’. It also demonstrates how the Yezidis have been perceived by others. It discusses two main Yezidi genetic myths, the stories of Shahid bin Jarr and Sultan Êzî, as well as motifs related to the Quraysh and Umayyad tradition. The analysis leads to the conclusion that for centuries this originally ethnically heterogeneous community did not express itself in nationalistic terms, but was founded on the mystical concepts of sunet and sur. This allows a perception of the Yezidis as the milet, possessing its own rich discourse of self-identification, going beyond categories originated in modern Western-grounded ideologies.



Work on this chapter was supported by the Polish National Science Centre, grant: 2016/20/S/HS1/00055.


  1. Açıkyıldız, Birgül. 2002. Les Yézidis et le sanctuaire du Šeykh ‘Adī. Vol. I–II. Paris: Mémoire de D.E.A. d’Histoire de l’Art Islamique, Université de Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne. Google Scholar
  2. ———. 2009. The Sanctuary of Shaykh ʿAdī at Lalish: Centre of Pilgrimage of the Yezidis. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 72: 301–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ———. 2015. The Yezidis, The History of a Community, Culture and Religion. London/New York: I.B Tauris.Google Scholar
  4. Act of Returning to the Bosom of the Yezidi Religion, 15 December 2011. Accessed 1 Sept 2017. Accessed 20 Nov 2017.
  5. Ahmed, Sami S. 1975. In The Yazidis. Their Life and Beliefs, ed. Henry Field. Coconut Grove: Field Research Projects.Google Scholar
  6. Ainsworth, William F. 1861. The Assyrian Origin of the Izedis or Yezidis – The So-Called ‘Devil Worshippers’. Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London 1: 11–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Al-Azzawi, Abbas. 1951. Notes on the Yezidis. Trans. C.A. Good. In The Anthropology of Iraq, ed. Henry Field, Part 2, No. 1, The Northern Jazira. 81–93. Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  8. Al-Damlooji, Sadiq. 1949. Al-Yezidiyyeh. Mosul: Ittihad Press.Google Scholar
  9. Al-Jabiri, Khalid Faraj. 1981 [1982]. Stability and Social Change in Yezidi Society, PhD Dissertation. Oxford University.Google Scholar
  10. Allison, Christine. 2008. ‘“Unbelievable Slowness of Mind”: Yezidi Studies, from Nineteenth to Twenty-First Century. Journal of Kurdish Studies 6: 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. ———. 2014. Living with Labels: New Identities and the Yezidis of Turkey. In Turkey and the Politics of National Identity, ed. Shane Brennan and Marc Herzog, 95–115. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  12. Al-Mokaddasi. 1877. Descriptio imperii moslemici [Ahsan al-taqasim fi ma’rifat al-aqalim]. In Bibliotheca geographorum Arabicorum, ed. Michael Jan de Goeje, vol. III. Lugduni Batavorum: Brill.Google Scholar
  13. Aloian, Zorabê. 2008. Religious and Philosophical Ideas of Shaikh ‘Adi b. Musafir. Spånga.Google Scholar
  14. Aloiane, Zourabi. 1996. The Reconstruction of Šayh ‘Adi b. Musafir’s Biography on the Basis of Arabic and Kurdish Sources. In Proceedings of the Colloquium on Logos, Ethos, Mythos in the Middle East & North Africa, Part 2, ed. Alexander Fodor. 95–104. Budapest: Eötvös Loránd University Chair for Arabic Studies & Csoma de Kőrös Society Section of Islamic Studies.Google Scholar
  15. Al-Tabari. 1985. The History of al-Ṭabarī, Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk. Vol. XXVII, The Abbasid Revolution. Trans. John A. Williams. Albany.Google Scholar
  16. ———. 1987a. The History of al-Ṭabarī, Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk. Vol. II, Prophets and Patriarchs. Trans. William M. Brinner, Albany.Google Scholar
  17. ———. 1987b. The History of al-Ṭabarī, Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk. Vol. XVIII, Between Civil Wars. Trans. Michael G. Morony. Albany.Google Scholar
  18. ———. 1988. The History of al-Ṭabarī, Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk. Vol. VI. Muhammad at Mecca, Trans. W.M. Watt and M.V. McDonald. Albany.Google Scholar
  19. ———. 1990. The History of al-Ṭabarī, Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk. Vol. XIX. The Caliphate of Yazīd b. Muʿāwiyah, Trans. I.K.A. Howard. Albany.Google Scholar
  20. Amir-Moezzi, Mohammad A. 2004. Sirr. In The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition, ed. Peri J. Bearman et al., vol. XII. Supplement, 752–754. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  21. Amoev, Kerim A., and Nodar Mosaki. 2014. Kurdy i ezidy v perepisjah naselenija Rossijskoj imperii, SSSR i stran postsovetskogo prostranstva. Moskva: Taus.Google Scholar
  22. Anastase, Marie. 1911. La découverte récente des deux livres sacrés des Yézîdis. Anthropos 6: 1–39.Google Scholar
  23. Anthony, Sean W. 2012. Who Was the Shepherd of Damascus? The Enigma of Jewish and Messianist Responses to the Islamic Conquests in Marwānid Syria and Mesopotamia. In The Lineaments of Islam, ed. Paul M. Cobb, 21–59. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  24. Arakelova, Victoria. 2001. Sufi Saints in the Yezidi Tradition I: Qawlē H’usēyīnī H’alāj̆. Iran and the Caucasus 5: 183–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. ———. 2010. Ethno-Religious Communities: To the Problem of Identity Markers. Iran and the Caucasus 14: 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Armenian Population Census. 2001. 2003. The Results of Census of Republic of Armenia of 2001. Yerevan: National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia.Google Scholar
  27. Asatrian, Garnik. 2009. Prolegomena to the Study of the Kurds. Iran and the Caucasus 13: 1–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Asatrian, Garnik, and Victoria Arakelova. 2014. The Religion of the Peacock Angel. The Yezidis and Their Spirit World. Durham: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Averyanov, Piotr I. 1900. Kurdy v voynah Rossii s Persiey i Turciey v techenie XIX stoletiya. Sovremennoe politicheskoe polozhenie tureckih, persidskih i russkih kurdov. Tiflis.Google Scholar
  30. Baba Sheikh: ‘Kurdish Referendum Is Not for Yezidis’. 2017. Ezidkhan, 24 September. Accessed 11 Oct 2017.
  31. Bar Hebraeus. 1932. The Chronography. Trans. Ernest A. W. Budge. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Barber, Matthew. 2017. The KRG’s Relationship with the Yazidi Minority and the Future of the Yazidis in Shingal. 31 January. Accessed 11 Oct 2017.
  33. Bayazîdî, Mela M. 1963. In Nravy i obychai kurdov, ed. Margarita B. Rudenko. Moskva.Google Scholar
  34. Bedir-Khan, Sureya. 1928. The Case of Kurdistan Against Turkey. Philadelphia: Internet Edition. Accessed 10 Dec 2017.
  35. Bedlisi, Sharaf al-Din Khan. 1860. In Scheref-nameh ou Histoire des Kourdes, par Scheref, Prince des Bidlis, ed. Vladimir Véliaminof-Zernof, vol. 1. St. Petersburg.Google Scholar
  36. Bittner, Maximilian. 1913. Die heiligen Bücher der Jeziden oder Teufelsanbeter (Kurdisch und Arabisch). Vienna.Google Scholar
  37. Braude, Benjamin. 2014. Foundation Myths of the Millet System. In Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire. The Abridged Edition, ed. Benjamin Braude, 65–86. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  38. Breytenbach, C., and P.L. Day. 1999. Satan. In Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, ed. Karel van der Toorn et al., 726–732. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  39. Browne, Gareth. 2017. Iraq’s Yazidis and Assyrians Remain Unconvinced by Kurdistan Referendum. The New Arab, 16 August 2017. Accessed 20 Dec 2017.
  40. Çelebi, Evliya. 1896. Seyahatnamesi. Vol. IV. Istanbul.Google Scholar
  41. Çetinsaya, Gökhan. 2006. Ottoman Administration of Iraq, 1890–1908. London/New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Chabot, Jean-Baptiste. 1896. Notice sur les Yézidis. Journal Asiatique 7: 100–132.Google Scholar
  43. Chikhladze, Iraklii, and Giga Chikhladze. 2003. The Yezidi Kurds and Assyrians of Georgia. The Problem of Diasporas and Integration into Contemporary Society. Journal of Central Asia and the Caucasus 21. Accessed 19 May 2017.
  44. Chol, Ismail Beg. 1934. In El Yazidiyya qadiman wa hadithan, ed. H. Zurayk. Beirut.Google Scholar
  45. Chol, Amir Ba-Yazid al-Amawi. 1973. Al-Tavus sanjaq al-Yazid, The Peacock, Sanjaq Yazid. Alturath Alsha’bi 4 (5): 55–58, 182–183.Google Scholar
  46. Chyet, Michael L. 2003. Kurdish-English Dictionary. New Haven/London.Google Scholar
  47. Cnd tkstên pîroz yên ula êzdiyan. 2013. Vol. II. Kurdiston-Duhok.Google Scholar
  48. Connor, Walker. 1972. Nation-Building or Nation-Destroying? World Politics 24 (3): 319–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. ———. 1990. When Is a Nation? Ethnic and Racial Studies 13 (1): 92–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Crone, Patricia. 2016. The Qurʾānic Pagans and Related Matters. Leiden: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Crone, Patricia, and Martin Hinds. 1986. God’s Caliph. Religious Authority in the First Centuries of Islam. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Dalalyan, Tork. 2012. Construction of Kurdish and Yezidi Identities Among the Kurmanj-Speaking Population of the Republic of Armenia. In Changing Identities: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, ed. Viktor Voronkov, 177–201. Tbilisi: Heinrich Boell Foundation South Caucasus Regional Office.Google Scholar
  53. de Beausobre, Isaac. 1739. Histoire Critique de Manichée et du Manichéisme. Vol. II. Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  54. Dirr, Adolf. 1917/1918. Einiges über die Jeziden. Anthropos 12/13: 558–574.Google Scholar
  55. Dugin, Aleksandr. 2017. Noomahiya. Voyny uma. Logos Turana. Moskva: Akademicheskiy proekt.Google Scholar
  56. Duguid, Stephen. 1973. The Politics of Unity: Hamidian Policy in Eastern Anatolia. Middle Eastern Studies 9: 139–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ebied, Rifaat, and Michael J.L. Young. 1972. An Account of the History and Rituals of the Yazīdīs of Mosul. Le Muséon 85: 481–522.Google Scholar
  58. Edmonds, Cecil J. 1967. A Pilgrimage to Lalish. London.Google Scholar
  59. El-Ghobashy, Tamer. 2017. Christians and Yazidis See a Bleak Future in a Proposed Independent Kurdish State. The Washington Post, 7 October 2017. Accessed 22 Dec 2017.
  60. Empson, Ralph.H.W. 1928. The Cult of the Peacock Angel. London.Google Scholar
  61. Fahd, T., and A. Rippin. 1997. Shayṭān. In Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, ed. Clifford E. Bosworth et al., vol. IX, 406–409. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  62. Field, Henry. 1951. The Anthropology of Iraq, The Anthropology of Iraq, Part 2, No. 1, The Northern Jazira. Cambridge, MA: Field Museum of Natural History.Google Scholar
  63. Fleischer, Heinrich L. 1862. Ueber die farbigen Lichterscheinungen der Sufi’s. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 16: 235–241.Google Scholar
  64. Frank, Rudolf. 1911. Scheich ʿAdî, der grosse Heilige der Jezîdîs. Berlin.Google Scholar
  65. Frayha, Anis. 1946. New Yezīdī Texts from Beled Sinjār, ‘Iraq’. Journal of the American Oriental Society 66 (1): 18–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Garzoni, Maurizio. 1787. Grammatica e vocabolario della lingua kurda. Roma.Google Scholar
  67. Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  68. Gölbaşı, Edip. 2008. The Yezidis and the Ottoman State: Modern Power, Military Conscription, and Conversion Policies, 1830–1909. Master’s Thesis, Boğaziçi University.Google Scholar
  69. ———. 2013. Turning the ‘Heretics’ into Loyal Muslim Subjects: Imperial Anxieties, the Politics of Religious Conversion, and the Yezidis in the Hamidian Era. Muslim World 103: 3–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Guest, John S. 1993. Survival Among the Kurds. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  71. Guidi, Michelangelo. 1932. Origine dei Yazidi e storia religiosa dell’Islam e del Dualismo. Rivista degli studi orientali 13, fasc. 3: 266–300.Google Scholar
  72. ———. 1933. Nouve ricerche sui Yazidi. Rivista degli studi orientali 13, fasc. 4: 377–427.Google Scholar
  73. Guraya, Muhammad Y. 1972. The Concept of Sunnah a Historical Study. Islamic Studies 11 (1): 13–44.Google Scholar
  74. Hasan, Ahmad. 1968. The Sunnah – Its Early Concept and Development. Islamic Studies 7 (1): 47–69.Google Scholar
  75. Hawting, Gerald R. 1999. The Idea of Idolatry and the Emergence of Islam. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. ———. 2000. The First Dynasty of Islam. The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661–750. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  77. Heard, W.B. 1911. Notes on the Yezidis. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 41: 200–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hecî, Bedel Feqîr. 1996. Komeka Têkstêt Ola Êzîdîya. Laliş 6: 54–85.Google Scholar
  79. Husayn, A. 1995. ‘Al-yazidiyuna: akrad bi-za’ama ‘arabiya.’ Al-Sharq al-awsat 6017.Google Scholar
  80. Hussein, Rikar. 2016. Pregnant IS Rape Victims Face Challenges Upon Returning to Iraq. Voice of America, 20 August 2016. Accessed 22 Dec 2017.
  81. Hyde, Thomas. 1700. Historia religionis veterum Persarum, eorumque magorum. Oxonii.Google Scholar
  82. Ibn Kathir, Al-Hafiz Dimashqi. 2006. Book of the End, ed. Abdul Ahad. Trans. Faisal Shafiq. London.Google Scholar
  83. Ibn Khallikan. 1843. Wafayat al a’yan, Ibn Khallikan’s Biographical Dictionary. Trans. Baron Mac Guckin de Slane [William McGuckin], Vol. II. Paris.Google Scholar
  84. Ibn Taymiyya. 1323. Majmu’at al-Rasa’il al-Kubra. Vol. I. Cairo.Google Scholar
  85. Joseph, Isya. 1909a. Yezidi Texts. American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 25 (2): 111–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. ———. 1909b. Yezidi Texts (Continued). American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 25 (3): 218–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. ———. 1919. Devil Worship, the Sacred Books and Traditions of the Yezidiz. Boston.Google Scholar
  88. Kedourie, Elie. 1988. Ethnicity, Majority and Minority in the Middle East. In Ethnicity, Pluralism and State in the Middle East, ed. Milton J. Esman and Itamar Rabinovich, 25–35. London: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Kedourie, Elie. 1961. Nationalism. London: Hutchinson University Library.Google Scholar
  90. Khachatrian, Shavarsh. 2004. Identity of Armenia’s Yezidis. Ditord 8 (26): 7–14.Google Scholar
  91. Kister, Meir J. 1986. Mecca and the Tribes of Arabia: Some Notes on Their Relations. In Studies in Islamic History and Civilization in Honour of Professor David Ayalon, ed. Moshe Sharon, 33–57. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  92. Klein, Janet. 2011. The Margins of Empire: Kurdish Militias in the Ottoman Tribal Zone. Stanford: Stanford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kohlberg, Etan. 1995. Al-Rāfiḍa. In The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition, ed. Peri Bearman et al., vol. VIII, 386–389. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  94. Kreyenbroek, Philip G. 1992. Mithra and Ahreman, Binyāmīn and Malak Ṭāwūs. In Recurrent Patterns in Iranian Religion: From Mazdaism to Sufism, ed. Philippe Gignoux, 57–79. Paris: Association pour l’avancement des études iraniennes.Google Scholar
  95. ———. 1995. Yezidism – Its Background, Observances and Textual Tradition. Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press.Google Scholar
  96. ———. 2015. The Yezidi and Yarsan Traditions. In The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Zoroastrianism, ed. Michael Stausberg and Yuhan S.-D. Vevaina, 499–504. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell.Google Scholar
  97. Kreyenbroek, Philip G., and Khalil J. Rashow. 2005. God and Sheikh Adi Are Perfect. Sacred Poems and Religious Narratives from the Yezidi Tradition. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
  98. KRG Renews Call on PKK to Withdraw Troops from Yezidi City, Rudaw 17 March 2017. Accessed 22 Oct 2017.
  99. Krikorian, Onnik. 2006. Armenia: Yezidi Identity Battle. Caucasus Reporting Service 364.
  100. Lammens, Henri. 1913. Le califat de Yazîd 1er (4e et dernier fascicule). Mélange de la Faculté Orientale VI: 446–463.Google Scholar
  101. ———. 1921. Le califat de Yazîd 1er. Beyrouth.Google Scholar
  102. Lescot, Roger. 1975. Enquête sur les Yezidis de Syrie et du Djebel Sindjār. Beyrouth: Librairie du Liban, Institut français d'études arabes de Damas.Google Scholar
  103. Lidzbarski, Mark. 1897. Ein Exposé der Jesîden. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 51: 592–604.Google Scholar
  104. Macharadze, Valerian G. 1968. Matierialy po istorii russko-gruzinskih otnosheniy vtoroy polovini XVIII v. Tbilisi.Google Scholar
  105. ———. 1989. Gruzinskie dokumienty po istorii gruzino-kurdsko-assiriysko-russkih vzaimootnosheniy (60–70-e gg. XVIII veka). Tbilisi: Sabchota Sakartvelo.Google Scholar
  106. Maçoudi, 1869. Les prairies d’or. Edited and Trans. Charles Barbier de Meynard. Vol. V. Paris.Google Scholar
  107. Maisel, Sebastian. 2013. Syria’s Yezidis in the Kūrd Dāgh and the Jazīra: Building Identities in a Heterodox Community. The Muslim World 103: 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Major, Tristan. 2013. The Number Seventy-Two: Biblical and Hellenistic Beginnings to the Early Middle Ages. Sacris Erudiri 52: 7–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Massignon, Louis. 1911. Al Ḥallâj: le phantasme crucifié des docètes et Satan selon les Yézidis. Revue de l’histoire des religions 63: 195–207.Google Scholar
  110. ———. 1922. La passion d’al-Hosayn ibn Mansour al-Hallaj, martyr mystique de l’Islam exécuté à Bagdad le 26 mars 922, étude d’histoire religieuse. Vol. II. Paris.Google Scholar
  111. Mayevskіy, Vladimir T. 1901. Vanskіj vilaet, Voenno-statisticheskoe opisanie. Tiflis.Google Scholar
  112. Meier, Fritz. 1954. Der Name der Yazīdī’s. In Westöstliche Abhandlungen, ed. Fritz Meier, 244–257. Wiesbaden.Google Scholar
  113. Minorskіy, Vladimir F. 1915. Kurdy. Zametki i vpechatlenіa. Petrograd.Google Scholar
  114. Murad, Nadia. 2017. The Last Girl. My Story of Captivity, and My Fight Against the Islamic State. New York: Tim Duggan Books.Google Scholar
  115. Muzury [Mizoori], Abdul-Rahman. 2009. Taj Al-Arifeen: Al-Sheikh Udday bin Musafir al-Kurdy Al-Hakary is not an Umayyad. Duhok: The Center of Kurdish Studies.Google Scholar
  116. Nau, François, and Joseph Tfinkdji. 1915–1917. Recueil de textes et de documents sur les Yézidis. Revue de L’Orient Chretien 10 (20): 142–200, 225–275.Google Scholar
  117. Nicolaus, Peter, and Serkan Yuce. 2017. Sex-Slavery: One Aspect of the Yezidi Genocide. Iran and the Caucasus 21: 196–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Omarkhali, Khanna. 2017. The Yezidi Religious Textual Tradition: From Oral to Written. Categories, Transmission, Scripturalisation and Canonisation of the Yezidi Oral Religious Texts. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
  119. Omer, Sarwar A. 2016. Yazidi Women as Odalisques. Sulaimani.Google Scholar
  120. Oxford Latin Dictionary. 1968. Edited by Alexander Souter et al. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  121. Parry, Oswald H. 1895. Six Months in a Syrian Monastery. London.Google Scholar
  122. Pirbari, Dimitri, and Rustam Rzgojan. 2014. K voprosu ob identichnosti ezidov. Papers of Caucasian Etnology 15: 170–195.Google Scholar
  123. Rahman, Fazlur. 1962. Concepts Sunnah, Ihtihād and Ijmā’ in the Early Period. Islamic Studies 1 (1): 5–21.Google Scholar
  124. Reynolds, Michael A. 2014. The Ends of Empire: Imperial Collapse and the Trajectory of Kurdish Nationalism. In Regional Routes, Regional Roots? Cross-Border Patterns of Human Mobility in Eurasia, ed. So Yamane and N. Naganawa, 31–48. Sapporo: Hokkaido University.Google Scholar
  125. Richardson, John. 1777. A Dictionary Persian, Arabic and English. Oxford.Google Scholar
  126. Rodziewicz, Artur. 2014. Yezidi Eros. Love as the Cosmogonic Factor and Distinctive Feature of the Yezidi Theology in the Light of Some Ancient Cosmogonies. Fritillaria Kurdica 3–4: 42–105.Google Scholar
  127. ———. 2016. And the Pearl Became an Egg: The Yezidi Red Wednesday and Its Cosmogonic Background. Iran and the Caucasus 20 (3–4): 347–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. ———. 2017. Revival of the Yezidi Religion in Georgia? Conversations with Dmitri Pirbari – The Head of the Spiritual Council of the Yezidis in Georgia. Fritillaria Kurdica. Bulletin of Kurdish Studies 16: 4–67.Google Scholar
  129. Rubin, Uri. 1979. Prophets and Progenitors in the Early Shī’a Tradition. Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 1: 41–65.Google Scholar
  130. Russian Population Census. 1897.
  131. Schimmel, Annemarie. 1975. Mystical Dimensions of Islam. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  132. Schütz, Paul. 1930. Zwischen Nil und Kaukasus. Munich.Google Scholar
  133. Second Report of the Republic of Armenia under Article 15, Paragraph 1, of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. 2007. Yerevan.Google Scholar
  134. Şewqî, Îsa. 1997. Yezîdê kurê Mu’awiya û Êzîdîtî. Denge Êzîdiyan 6–7: 11–25.Google Scholar
  135. Shahin, Aram A. 2012. In Defense of Muʿāwiya ibn Abī Sufyān: Treatises and Monographs on Muʿāwiya from the Eighth to the Nineteenth Centuries. In The Lineaments of Islam, ed. Paul M. Cobb, 177–208. Leiden: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Siouffi, Nicolas. 1882. Notice sur la secte des Yézidis. Journal asiatique Series 7, 20: 256–260.Google Scholar
  137. Smith, Anthony D. 1986. The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  138. ———. 1998. Nationalism and Modernism. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  139. ———. 2008. The Cultural Foundations of Nations. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  140. Soviet Population Census. 1926.
  141. Spät, Eszter. 2002. Shahid bin Jarr, Forefather of the Yezidis and the Gnostic seed of Seth. Iran and the Caucasus 6: 27–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. ———. 2010. Late Antique Motifs in Yezidi Oral Tradition. Piscataway: Gorgias Press.Google Scholar
  143. Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. 1988. Can the Subaltern Speak? In Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, ed. Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg, 271–314. Chicago/Urbana: University of Illinois Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Strohmeier, Martin. 2003. Crucial Images in the Presentation of a Kurdish National Identity. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  145. Stroumsa, Gedaliahu A.G. 1984. Another Seed: Studies in Gnostic Mythology. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  146. Sykes, Mark. 1908. The Kurdish Tribes of the Ottoman Empire. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 38: 451–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. The First Report of the Republic of Armenia According to Paragraph 1 of Article 15 of European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. 2003. Yerevan.Google Scholar
  148. The Revival of Slavery. Before the Hour. 1435 [2014]. Dabiq 4: 14–17.Google Scholar
  149. Ursinus, Michael O.H. 1993. Millet. In Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, ed. Clifford E. Bosworth et al., vol. VII, 61–64. Leiden/New York: Brill.Google Scholar
  150. Ushakov, Nikolay. 1836. Istorija voennyh deystviy v Aziatskoy Turcii v 1828 i 1829 godah. Vol. 1. Sanktpeterburg.Google Scholar
  151. Vanly, Ismet Ch. 2005. The Kurds in the Soviet Union. In The Kurds, A Contemporary Overview, ed. Philip G. Kreyenbroek, 112–134. London/New York.Google Scholar
  152. Watt, William M. 1963. The Rāfiḍites: A Preliminary Study. Oriens 16: 110–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Wellhausen, Julius. 1927. The Arab Kingdom and Its Fall. Trans. M.G. Weir. Calcutta.Google Scholar
  154. Whitman, Walt. 1860–61. Leaves of Grass. Boston.Google Scholar
  155. Yegiazarov, Solomon A. 1891. Kratkiy etnografichesko-yuridicheskiy ocherk ezidov Yerivanskoy gubernii. In ‘Zapiski Kavkazskogo otdela imperatorskogo Russkogo geograficheskogo obshhestva, vol. 13, 171–234.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Artur Rodziewicz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Iranian Studies, Institute of Oriental StudiesJagiellonian UniversityKrakówPoland

Personalised recommendations