Stackelberg Differential Game Based Charging Control of Electric Vehicles in Smart Grid

  • Haitao Xu
  • Hung Khanh Nguyen
  • Xianwei Zhou
  • Zhu Han
Part of the EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing book series (EAISICC)


In this paper, we investigate the charging control problems of the electrical vehicles in smart grid, where electricity transactions exist between the aggregation and the electrical vehicles. We use the Stackelberg differential game to formulate the charging/discharging interactions between the aggregation and the electrical vehicles, and introduce the differential equations to reveal the dynamic behavior of the energy levels of the aggregation and the electrical vehicles. The aggregation acts as the leader, and controls the charging electricity price for the transactions to maximize the payoff. The electrical vehicles act as the followers, and control their charging/discharging power to minimize the energy cost. The open loop equilibrium solutions to the Stackelberg differential game can be obtained as the optimal solutions for the aggregations and the electrical vehicles. Numerical simulations and results show the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed algorithms.



This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Project of China (No.61501026).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haitao Xu
    • 1
  • Hung Khanh Nguyen
    • 2
  • Xianwei Zhou
    • 1
  • Zhu Han
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina
  2. 2.University of HoustonHoustonUSA

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