Advertisement

Control of Invasive Aquatic Plants

  • Deborah HofstraEmail author
  • John Clayton
  • Paul Champion
  • Mary D. de Winton
Chapter

Abstract

The presence of invasive weed species invariably has a detrimental effect on native plant biodiversity, abundance and depth range in the short term and on native seed bank in the longer term. Removal of invasive weed beds may enable the recovery and restoration of native vegetation. The method or tools available for weed control include habitat manipulation and biological, chemical, mechanical, manual and integrated weed control. The selection of tools utilised for a particular weed issue are primarily dictated by the target weed species, characteristics of the lake or water body and the management goals. Management goals that target a significant reduction in weed biomass or eradication (in the longer term) and tools that result in selective target weed control provide opportunities for restoration of native aquatic plants. Restoration can occur via passive regeneration of native plants from adjacent sites, seed banks and waterfowl-mediated dispersal, or actively through planting, and brings associated benefits of habitat for native fauna, with additional improved amenity and recreation values.

Keywords

Life-form types Weed control Weed eradication Native values Seed bank 

References

  1. Caffrey J, Millane M, Evers S, Moran H (2011) Management of Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) Moss in Lough Corrib – a review. Biol Environ Proc R Irish Acad 111B(3):205–212Google Scholar
  2. Caffrey J, Baars J-R, Barbour J, Boets P, Boon P, Davenport K, Dick J, Early J, Edsman L, Gallagher C, Gross J, Heinimaa P, Horrill C, Hudin S, Hulme P, Hynes S, MacIsaac HJ, McLoone P, Millane M, Moen T, Moore N, Newman J, O’Conchuir R, O’Farrell M, O’Flynn C, Oidtmann B, Renals T, Ricciardi A, Roy H, Shaw R, Weyl O, Williams F, Lucy F (2014) Tackling invasive alien species in Europe: the top 20 issues. Manage Biol Invasions 5:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Champion PD (2002) Egeria densa – an alien invasive plant responsible for the loss of submersed vegetation from New Zealand shallow lakes. In: Spafford JH, Dodd J, Moore JH (eds) 13th Australian Weeds Conference papers and proceedings, Perth, WA, 8–13 Sept 2002, pp 126–129Google Scholar
  4. Champion PD (2014a) Freshwater weeds in New Zealand. NIWA report for Department of Conservation. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  5. Champion PD (2014b) Northland lakes strategy part II: update and implementation strategy. NIWA Client Report HAM2014-038. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  6. Champion PD, Clayton J (2000) Border control for potential aquatic weeds; Stage 1. Weed risk model. Science for Conservation 141. Department of Conservation, Wellington, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  7. Champion PD, Clayton J (2001) Border Control for Potential Aquatic Weeds. Stage 2 Weed Risk Assessment. Science for Conservation 185. Department of Conservation, Wellington, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  8. Champion PD, Clayton J (2003) The evaluation and management of aquatic weeds in New Zealand. In: Child L, Brock JH, Brundu G, Prach K, Pysek P, Wade PM, Williamson M (eds) Plant invasions: ecological threats and management solutions. Backhuys, Leiden, pp 429–434Google Scholar
  9. Champion PD, de Winton MD (2012) Northland Lake strategy. NIWA Client Report HAM2012-121. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  10. Champion PD, Wells RDS (2008) Designing surveillance programmes for submerged freshwater weeds. http://www.nzpps.org/books/2008_Surveillance/12201.pdf
  11. Champion PD, Wells RDS (2014) Proactive management of aquatic weeds to protect the nationally important Northland dune lakes, New Zealand. In: Baker M (ed) Science, community and food security: the weed challenge. Proceedings of the 19th Australasian Weeds Conference, Hobart, 1–4 Sept 2014, pp 139–142Google Scholar
  12. Champion PD, Clayton J, Rowe D (2002) Alien invaders – Lake manager’s handbook. ME 444. Ministry for the Environment, Wellington, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  13. Champion PD, de Winton MD, Clayton JS (2014) A risk assessment based proactive management strategy for aquatic weeds in New Zealand. Manage Biol Invasions 5:233–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clayton JS (1990) Impact of climate change on aquatic plants. In: Prestidge RA, Pottinger RP (eds) The impact of climate change on pests, diseases, weeds and beneficial organisms present in New Zealand agricultural and horticultural systems. New Zealand Ministry for the Environment, Wellington, New Zealand, pp 113–116Google Scholar
  15. Clayton JS (1996) Aquatic weeds and their control in New Zealand Lakes. Lake Reservoir Manage 12(4):477–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Clayton JS, Champion PD (2006) Risk assessment method for submerged weeds in New Zealand hydroelectric lakes. Hydrobiologia 570:183–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Clayton JS, Edwards T (2006) Aquatic plants as environmental indicators of ecological condition in New Zealand lakes. Hydrobiologia 570:147–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Clayton JS, Matheson F (2010) Optimising diquat use for submerged aquatic weed management. Hydrobiologia 656:159–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clayton JS, Wells RDS (1999) Some issues in risk assessment reports on grass carp and silver carp. Conservation Advisory Science Notes No 257, Department of Conservation, Wellington, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  20. Clayton JS, Schwarz AM, Coffey BT (1986) Notes on the submerged vegetation of Lake Hawea. N Z J Mar Freshw Res 20(2):185–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Clayton JS, Champion PD, McCarter NM (1995) Control of Hydrilla verticillata in a New Zealand lake using triploid grass carp. In: Proceedings of the 8th international symposium on biological control of weeds. Lincoln University, Christchurch, New Zealand, pp 275–285 Feb 1992Google Scholar
  22. Clout MN, Russell JC (2006) The eradication of mammals from New Zealand islands. In: Koike F, Clout MN, Kawamichi M, De Poorter M, Iwatsuki K (eds) Assessment and control of biological invasion risks. Shoukadoh Book Sellers/World Conservation Union (IUCN), Kyoto/Gland, pp 127–141Google Scholar
  23. Compton TJ, de Winton M, Leathwick JR, Wadhwa S (2012) Predicting spread of invasive macrophytes in New Zealand lakes using indirect measures of human accessibility. Freshw Biol 57:938–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. de Winton MD, Clayton JS (1996) The impact of invasive submerged weed species on seed banks in lake sediments. Aquat Bot 53:31–45Google Scholar
  25. de Winton MD, Clayton JS, Champion PD (2000) Seedling emergence from seed banks of 15 New Zealand lakes with contrasting vegetation histories. Aquat Bot 66:181–194Google Scholar
  26. de Winton MD, Champion PD, Clayton JS, Wells RDS (2009) Spread and status of seven submerged pest plants in New Zealand lakes. N Z J Mar Freshw Res 43(2):547–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. de Winton M, Jones H, Edwards T, Özkundakci D, Wells R, McBride C, Rowe D, Hamilton D, Clayton J, Champion P, Hofstra D (2013) Review of best management practices for aquatic vegetation control in stormwater ponds, wetlands, and lakes. Auckland Council Technical Report TR2013/026. Prepared by NIWA and the University of Waikato for Auckland Council, Auckland, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  28. de Winton M, Burton T, Clayton J (2014) Early detection using surveillance for aquatic weeds: validating techniques and practices in Lake Ōkāreka. NIWA Client Report HAM2014-100 prepared for Bay of Plenty Regional Council. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  29. Duggan IC (2010) The freshwater aquarium trade as a vector for incidental invertebrate fauna. Biol Invasions 12(11):3757–3770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Eichler LW, Howe EA, Boylen CW (2001) The use of stream delta surveillance as a tool for early detection of Eurasian Watermilfoil. J Aquat Plant Manage 39:79–82Google Scholar
  31. Hamilton DP, McBride C, Özkundakci D, Schallenberg M, Verburg P, de Winton M, Kelly D, Hendy C, Ye W (2013) Effects of climate change on New Zealand Lakes. In: Goldman CR, Kumagai M, Robarts RD (eds) Climatic change and global warming of inland waters: impacts and mitigation for ecosystems and societies. Wiley, Chichester, UKGoogle Scholar
  32. Hofstra DE, Clayton JS (2001) Evaluation of selected herbicides for the control of exotic submerged weeds in New Zealand: I. The use of endothall, triclopyr, and dichlobenil. J Aquat Plant Manage 39:20–24Google Scholar
  33. Hofstra DE, Clayton JS (2014) Native flora and fauna response to removal of the weed Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle in Lake Tutira. Hydrobiologia 737:297–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hofstra DE, Clayton JS, Getsinger KD (2001) Evaluation of selected herbicides for the control of exotic submerged weeds in New Zealand: II. The effects of turbidity on diquat and endothall efficacy. J Aquat Plant Manage 39:25–27Google Scholar
  35. Hofstra D, Edwards T, Clayton J, Shearer J (2004a) Mycoleptodiscus terrestris – a comparison between isolates from the United States and New Zealand. Aquatic Plant Management Society 44th Meeting, July 2004, Tampa, Florida, USAGoogle Scholar
  36. Hofstra DE, Clayton JS, Champion PD (2004b) Hydrilla eradication research interim report 2004. NIWA Client Report HAM2004-049 for the Department of Conservation (DOC04277). National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  37. Hofstra DE, Clayton JS, Champion PD, Smith BJ, Smith JP (2008) Hydrilla lakes baseline survey 2008 – flora and fauna. NIWA Client Report HAM2008-061 for MAFBNZ. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  38. Hofstra DE, Rowe DK, Clayton JS (2014) Assessment of grass carp use for aquatic weed control. NIWA Client Report HAM2014-061 for the Ministry for Primary Industries. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  39. Howard-Williams C (1993) Processes of aquatic weed invasions – the New Zealand example. J Aquat Plant Manage 31:17–23Google Scholar
  40. Howard-Williams C, Clayton JS, Coffey BT, Johnstone IM (1987) Macrophyte invasions. In: Viner AB (ed) Inland water of New Zealand. DSIR Bull 241, Wellington, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  41. Howard-Williams C, Schwarz A, Reid V (1996) Patterns of aquatic weed regrowth following mechanical harvesting in New Zealand hydro lakes. Hydrobiologia 340:229–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. HSNO (1996) Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act. http://www.mfe.govt.nz/more/acts-and-regulations/hsno-act-1996. Accessed 8 Sept 2018
  43. Hyldgaard B, Brix H (2012) Intraspecies differences in phenotypic plasticity: invasive versus non-invasive populations of Ceratophyllum demersum. Aquat Bot 97:49–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Johnstone IM, Coffey BT, Howard-Williams C (1985) The role of recreational boat traffic in interlake dispersal of macrophytes. A New Zealand case study. J Environ Manage 20:263–279Google Scholar
  45. Julien MH (1981) Control of aquatic Alternanthera philoxeroides in Australia; another success for Agasicles hygrophila. In: Delfosse ES (ed) Proceedings of the 5th international symposium on biological control of weeds, Brisbane, 22–27 July 1980, CSIRO, Indooroopilly, Australia, pp 583–588Google Scholar
  46. Keller RP, Lodge DM (2007) Species invasions from commerce in live aquatic organisms: problems and possible solutions. Bioscience 57:428–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lake Wanaka Lagarosiphon Management Plan (2005) A 10 year lagarosiphon management plan for Lake Wanaka: 2005–2015. Prepared by the Lake Wanaka Management Team. https://www.doc.govt.nz/documents/conservation/threats-and-impacts/weeds/wanaka-lagarosiphon-plan.pdf. Accessed 9 Sept 2018
  48. Lockwood JL, Cassey P, Blackburn TM (2009) The more you introduce the more you get: the role of colonization and propagule pressure in invasion ecology. Divers Distrib 15:904–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. MAF (2008) Operational Plan, National Interest Pest Response: Hydrilla verticillata Eradication. August 2008. MAF Biosecurity, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  50. Meyerson LA, Reaser JK (2002) Biosecurity: moving toward a comprehensive approach: a comprehensive approach to biosecurity is necessary to minimise the risk of harm caused by non-native organisms to agriculture, the economy, the environment, and human health. Bioscience 52:593–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mitchell CP (1980) Control of water weeds by grass carp in two small lakes. N Z J Mar Freshw Res 14:381–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Neale H (1988) Elands Lake trial design and methods. Final Draft. MAFTech Report, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  53. New Zealand Herald (2012) Plan to control weeds opposed. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10844272. Accessed 8 Sept 2018
  54. Richardson DM, Pysek P, Rejmanek M, Barbour MG, Panetta FM, West CJ (2000) Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions. Divers Distrib 6:93–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rowe D (1984) Some effects of eutrophication and the removal of aquatic plants by grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) on rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) in Lake Parkinson, New Zealand. N Z J Mar Freshw Res 18:115–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rowe D, Champion P (1994) Biomanipulation of plants and fish to restore Lake Parkinson: a case study and its implications. In: Collier KJ (ed) Restoration of aquatic habitats. Selected papers from the second day of the New Zealand Limnological Society 1993 Annual Conference, Department of Conservation, pp 53–65Google Scholar
  57. Rowe DK, Schipper CM (1985) An assessment of the impact of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in New Zealand waters. Fisheries Environmental Report, No. 58. Fisheries Research Division, New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and FisheriesGoogle Scholar
  58. Schallenberg M, Sorrell B (2009) Regime shifts between clear and turbid water in New Zealand lakes: environmental correlates and implications for management and restoration. N Z J Mar Freshw Res 43:701–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Shearer JF (1996) Potential of a pathogen, Mycoleptodiscus terrestris, as a biocontrol agent for the management of Myriophyllum spicatum in Lake Guntersville Reservoir. Technical Report A-96-4. US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MSGoogle Scholar
  60. Shearer JF (2009) Preliminary testing of Mycoleptodiscus terrestris formulations. APCRP Technical Notes Collection, ERDC/TN APCRP-BC-10. US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MSGoogle Scholar
  61. Shearer JF, Jackson MA (2006) Liquid culture production of microsclerotia of Mycoleptodiscus terrestris, a potential biological control agent for the management of hydrilla. Biol Control 38:298–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Simberloff D (2009) The role of propagule pressure in biological Invasions. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 40:81–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Stewart CA, Chapman RB, Emberson RM, Syrett P, Frampton CMA (1999) The effect of temperature on the development and survival of Agasicles hygrophila Selman & Vogt (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent for alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides). N Z J Zool 26(1):11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tanner CC (1992) A review of cattle grazing effects on lake margin vegetation with observations from dune lakes in Northland, New Zealand. N Z Nat Sci 19:1–14Google Scholar
  65. Tanner C, Wells R, Mitchell C (1990) Re-establishment of native macrophytes in Lake Parkinson following weed control by grass carp. N Z J Mar Freshw Res 24:181–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Waikato Regional Council (2014) Waikato regional pest management plan 2014–2024, Waikato Regional Council, Hamilton. https://www.waikatoregion.govt.nz/council/policy-and-plans/regional-pest-management-plan/. Accessed 8 Sept 2018
  67. Walther GR, Roques A, Hulme PE, Sykes MT, Pysek P (2009) Alien species in a warmer world: risks and opportunities. Trends Ecol Evol 24:686–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wells RDS, Champion PD (2012) Endothall for aquatic weed control in New Zealand. In: Zydenbos SM (ed) Proceedings of the 17th Australasian weeds conference. New Zealand Plant Protection Society, Christchurch, pp 307–310Google Scholar
  69. Wells RDS, Champion PD (2015) Northland Lakes: spring 2014. NIWA Client Report to Northland Regional Council. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  70. Wells RDS, Clayton JS (2005) Mechanical and chemical control of aquatic weeds: costs and benefits (Chapter 208). In: Pimentel D (ed) Encyclopaedia of Pest Management. Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  71. Wells RDS, Champion PD, Clayton JS (2014) Potential for lake restoration using the aquatic herbicide endothall. In: Baker M (ed) Science, community and food security: the weed challenge. Proceedings of the 19th Australasian Weeds Conference, Hobart, Tasmania, 1–4 September, pp 143–146Google Scholar
  72. Yamoah E, Gill GSC, Massey E (2013) Eradication programme for four noxious weeds in New Zealand. N Z Plant Prot 66:40–44Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deborah Hofstra
    • 1
    Email author
  • John Clayton
    • 1
  • Paul Champion
    • 1
  • Mary D. de Winton
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute of Water and Atmospheric ResearchHamiltonNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations