Automated High-frequency Monitoring and Research
High-frequency sensor measurements provide new opportunities to better understand and manage water resources. Recent advances in sensor and information technologies have enabled autonomous measurement and analysis of the aquatic environment at ever-increasing spatial and temporal resolution. Here, we describe the fundamentals of automated high-frequency lake monitoring, including hardware and telemetry design, sensor types and measurement principles, maintenance requirements, and quality assurance/quality control of datasets. These aspects require careful consideration to collect data that are suitably robust for monitoring and research needs. Examples are provided of the value of high-frequency measurements and derived data products for analysing short- and long-term lake processes. When applied with rigor, automated sensor measurements can improve programmes of management, monitoring, and research by providing baseline data, enabling rapid response to disturbance events, reducing some long-term costs, and opening new windows of opportunity to better understand the present era of declining water quality and environmental change.
KeywordsHigh-frequency monitoring Water quality sensors Fluorometry Data management
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