• Carlos A. Nobre
  • Jose A. Marengo
  • Wagner R. Soares
  • Ana Paula Soares


The risks of global climate change go from high to very high with an average increase in temperature of 4 °C or more. This includes serious and generalised impacts related to the extinction of endangered species, great risks to global and regional food security, in addition to climate risks associated to alterations in extreme events like heat waves, extreme rainfall and coastal flooding, which are already moderate to high with 1 °C increase in temperature. The consequences of a dangerous climate change due to 4 °C or above warming are suggested to be devastating: the inundation of coastal cities; increasing risks for food production potentially leading to higher malnutrition rates; many dry regions becoming dryer, wet regions, wetter; unprecedented heat waves in many regions, especially in the tropics; substantially exacerbated water scarcity and drought in many regions; increased frequency of high-intensity tropical cyclones; and irreversible loss of biodiversity, including coral reef systems (World Bank, 2012).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos A. Nobre
    • 1
  • Jose A. Marengo
    • 2
  • Wagner R. Soares
    • 2
  • Ana Paula Soares
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute for Advanced StudiesUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.National Center for Monitoring and Early Warning of Natural Disasters (CEMADEN)São PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Center for Environmental Studies and Research State University of Campinas (UNICAMP)São PauloBrazil

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