For locally advanced (e.g., T3 or N+) rectal cancer, RT is conventionally delivered with concurrent chemotherapy over a course of 5–6 weeks, 4–8 weeks before or after surgery. However, numerous randomized trials have utilized a “short course” technique, where RT is delivered in five fractions, without concurrent chemotherapy, and with surgery taking place within 1 week. In this section we will focus on the use of short course RT in the treatment of rectal cancer. In contrast to other gastrointestinal malignancies, SBRT does not have an established role in the treatment of rectal cancer; hypofractionation for rectal cancer is delivered to conventional large pelvic volumes usually with 3D-CRT.
KeywordsRectal cancer Short course Neoadjuvant Preoperative
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