How to Induce Arrhythmias with Ephedrine?

  • Arash Moosavi-Shalheh


Ephedrine is an alpha-beta agonist widely used for nasal decongestion, nervous system stimulation, and spinal anesthesia during cesarean section. Ephedra was used more than 5000 years ago in China and India for treating fever, flu, cold, chills, nasal congestion, coughing, and wheezing. Pseudoephedrine is an isomer of ephedrine. Ephedrine is a sympathomimetic drug that acts both on α- and β -adrenergic receptors. It directly stimulates α1, β 1, and β 2 adrenergic receptors. Furthermore, it indirectly stimulates the release of noradrenaline from the storage sites. The most important effects are the increase in the heart rate, increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, peripheral vasoconstriction, and relaxation of smooth muscle cells of bronchi. By adrenergic stimulation, ephedrine shortens atrial and ventricular refractory periods, permitting the development of both automatic and reentrant arrhythmias.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arash Moosavi-Shalheh
    • 1
  1. 1.Bispmotalagatan 2 lgh 1301MotalaSweden

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