Customization, Adaptive Implementation, and the “European Experience”

  • Eva Thomann
Part of the International Series on Public Policy book series (ISPP)


This chapter draws conclusions about the dynamics that drive customization and the conditions under which extensive or limited customization can contribute to successful implementation. Based on the results, I make recommendations for possible governance responses. I suggest refining frameworks of “adaptive implementation” in member state implementation by accounting for intermediate levels of ambiguity and the nature of the policy problem. These assertions await testing in other policy areas, countries, and multilevel systems. A research agenda for the study of customization in the European Union (EU) and beyond should track vertical policy change across all stages of the policy cycle and tackle the relevance of customization for better regulation, policy success, and the legitimacy of EU decision-making.


Adaptive implementation Better regulation Customization Europeanization 


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Eva Thomann
    • 1
  1. 1.University of ExeterExeterUK

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