Advertisement

Concluding Comments

  • Asher Flynn
  • Arie Freiberg
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Socio-Legal Studies book series (PSLS)

Abstract

Plea negotiations are a fact of life and have been so for many years. They are a pragmatic response to an imperfect world where legal and administrative resources are limited and managerial theories have transformed the criminal justice system. In Victoria, these negotiations are not of the kind depicted in fictionalised American television dramas in which plea deals are done and presented as fait accompli to the court, but are part of everyday legal life in a semi-adversarial criminal justice system. This chapter presents a summary of the main findings and contributions of this book. It also discusses a number of recommendations as to how the process can be made more transparent and less imperfect.

Keywords

Plea negotiations Plea bargaining Justice Resources Adversarial system Transparency Reform 

References

References

  1. Aas, K F 2005, Sentencing in the age of information: from Faust to Macintosh, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  2. Australian Law Reform Commission [ALRC] 2006, Same crime, same time: sentencing of federal offenders (Report #103, 2006).Google Scholar
  3. Baldwin, J & McConville, M 1977, Negotiated justice: pressures to plead guilty, Martin Robertson, London.Google Scholar
  4. Baldwin, J & McConville, M 1979, ‘Plea bargaining and the research dilemma’, Law and Policy Quarterly, vol. 1, pp. 223–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Buckle, S & Buckle, L 1977, Bargaining for justice: case disposition and reform in the criminal courts, Praeger Publishers, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Daly, K 2011, Conventional and Innovative Responses to Sexual Violence, ACSSA Issues, no. 12 Australian Centre for the Study of Sexual Assault, Melbourne.Google Scholar
  7. Flynn, A 2015, ‘Sexual violence and innovative responses to justice: Interrupting the recognisable narrative’, in N Henry, A Powell & A Flynn (eds), Rape Justice: Beyond the Criminal Law, pp. 92–111, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Flynn, A 2016, ‘Plea negotiations, prosecutors and discretion: an argument for legal reform’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 564–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Flynn, A & Hodgson, J 2017a (eds) Access to justice & legal aid: comparative perspectives on unmet legal needs, Hart Publishing, Oxford.Google Scholar
  10. Flynn, A, Hodgson, J, McCulloch, J & Naylor, B 2016, ‘Legal aid and access to legal representation: redefining the right to a fair trial’, Melbourne University Law Review, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 207–39.Google Scholar
  11. Freiberg, A, Donnelly, H & Gelb, K 2015, Sentencing for child sexual abuse in institutional contexts, Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, Sydney.Google Scholar
  12. Harris, J & Jesilow, P 2006, ‘It’s not the old ball game: three strikes and the courtroom workgroup’, Justice Quarterly, vol. 17, pp. 185–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Henry, N, Powell, A & Flynn, A 2015 (eds) Rape Justice: Beyond the Criminal Law, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.Google Scholar
  14. Kirchengast, T 2016, ‘Victims’ rights and the right to review: a corollary of the victim’s pre-trial rights to justice’, International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 103–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Law Institute of Victoria [LIV] 2011a, ‘Sex Offenders Act needs review’, LIJ, CEO’s LIJ Articles. Available from: http://www.liv.asn.au/Practice-Resources/News-Centre/Ceo-s-Page/Sex-Offenders-Act-needs-review [accessed 18 January 2016].
  16. Mack, K & Roach Anleu, S 1995, Pleading guilty: issues and practices, Australian Institute of Judicial Administration, Victoria.Google Scholar
  17. Mather, L 1979, Plea bargaining or trial? The process of criminal case disposition, Lexington Books, United States.Google Scholar
  18. Maynard, D 1984, Inside plea bargaining: the language of negotiation, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McConville, M 2002, ‘Plea bargaining’, in M McConville & G Wilson (eds), The handbook of the criminal justice process, pp. 353–79, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. McConville, M, Hodgson, J, Lee, B & Pavlovic, A 1994, Standing Accused: The Organisation and Practices of Criminal Defence Lawyers in Britain, Clarendon Press, Oxford.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McConville, M & Marsh, L 2014, Criminal judges: legitimacy, courts and state-induced guilty pleas in Britain, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McCoy, C 1990, Politics and plea bargaining: victims’ rights in California, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  23. New Zealand Law Reform Commission 2005, Criminal pre-trial processes: justice through efficiency (Report #89 2005).Google Scholar
  24. Ombudsman Victoria 2011, Whistleblowers Protection Act 2001: investigation into the failure of agencies to manage registered sex offenders, Ombudsman Victoria. Available from: https://www.ombudsman.vic.gov.au/getattachment/8ba099dd-0b7d-46f1-8bc4-5932db9c2c01//publications/parliamentary-reports/whistleblowers-protection-act-2001-investigation-i.aspx [accessed 18 January 2016].
  25. Pizzi, W 1999, Trials without truth: why our system of criminal trials has become an expensive failure and what we need to do to rebuild it, New York University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Powell, M, Day, A, Benson, M, Vess, J & Graffam, J 2014, ‘Police officers’ perceptions of interviewing offenders on sex offender registries’, International Journal of Police Science & Management, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 255–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rakoff, J S 2014, ‘Why innocent people plead guilty’, NY Books, November 20 issue. Available from: http://www.nybooks.com/articles/2014/11/20/why-innocent-people-plead-guilty [accessed 18 January 2016].
  28. Redlich, A D, Bushway, S D & Norris, R J 2016, ‘Plea decision-making by attorneys and judges’, Journal of Experimental Criminology, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 537–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse 2017a, Criminal Justice Report: Executive Summary and Parts 1–II, Royal Commission, Sydney.Google Scholar
  30. Shaw, D 2014, ‘Victims’ Right of Review Scheme sees 146 charged’, BBC News, 19 July. Available from: http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-28377445 [accessed 18 January 2016].
  31. Simon, J 2007, Governing through crime: how the war on crime transformed American democracy and created a culture of fear, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Solonec, T 2015, ‘“Tough on crime”: discrimination by another name – the legacy of mandatory sentencing in Western Australia’, Indigenous Law Bulletin, vol. 8, no. 18, pp. 7–11.Google Scholar
  33. Utz, P 1978, Settling the facts, Lexington Books, Canada.Google Scholar
  34. Vess, J, Langskaill, B, Day, A, Powell, M & Graffam, J 2011, ‘A comparative analysis of Australian sex offender legislation for sex offender registries’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 404–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Victorian Law Reform Commission [VLRC] 2012, Sex offenders registration: final report, VLRC, Melbourne. Available from: http://www.lawreform.vic.gov.au/content/sex-offenders-registration-final-report-html-version [accessed 18 January 2016].
  36. Victorian Law Reform Commission [VLRC] 2016, Victims of crime in the criminal trial process: final report, VLRC, Victoria.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Asher Flynn
    • 1
  • Arie Freiberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Monash UniversityClaytonAustralia

Personalised recommendations