Advertisement

Respiration

  • Graham E. Rotheray
Chapter
Part of the Zoological Monographs book series (ZM, volume 4)

Abstract

The form and function of the cyclorrhaphan respiratory system is dealt with in this chapter. Externally, the main components are larval anterior and posterior spiracles and, in the pupa, pupal spiracles. These three spiracles are each diverse in form and features and are a source of taxonomic and character data. Experiments blocking artificially the spiracles demonstrate their importance for respiration. Oxygen permeating through thin body walls also occurs and is probably important in the first and second stages and endoparasitic larvae. Larval and pupal spiracles are permanently open, but they can sometimes be folded into creases or withdrawn into pockets of the body wall which shuts them off from the atmosphere. Anterior spiracles are a minor component of larval respiration, but will take over if the posterior spiracles become damaged. In contrast, they are important for pupal respiration as a route for gaseous exchange in and out of an open space at the front of the puparium. The posterior spiracles are most important for larval respiration. In aquatic larvae, the anal segment is often extended which enables the larva to project the posterior spiracles while remaining submerged. An extreme form of extension occurs in larvae that have folded anal segments. When the anal segments unfold, the anal segment can reach several times the body length and correlated with extensions to the breathing tubes, enables these larvae to survive at greater depth than larvae lacking these features. Endoparasitic larvae possess specialised mechanisms for accessing air from inside hosts. The influence of respiration on feeding and locomotion and vice versa is also considered.

References

  1. Ajidagba P, Pitts CW, Bay DE (1983) Early embryogenesis in the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae). Ann Entomol Soc Am 76:616–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chandler PJ (2001) The flat-footed flies (Diptera: Opetiidae and Platypezidae) of Europe. Fauna Entomol Scand 36:1–276Google Scholar
  3. Chown SL, Gibbs AG, Hetz SK, Klok CJ, Lighton JRB, Marais E (2006) Discontinuous gas exchange in insects: a clarification of hypotheses and approaches. Physiol Biochem Zool 79:333–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Courtney GW, Sinclair BJ, Meier R (2000) Morphology and terminology of Diptera larvae. In: Papp L, Darvas B (eds) Contributions to a manual of palaearctic Diptera, vol 1. Science Herald, Budapest, pp 85–161Google Scholar
  5. de Meijere JCH (1902) Ueber die Prothorakalstigmen der Dipterenpuppen. Zool Jahrb Abt Anat Ontog Tiere 15:623–692Google Scholar
  6. de Meijere JCH (1912) Neue Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Conopiden. Tijdsch Entomol 55:184–207Google Scholar
  7. Disney H (1994) Scuttle flies: the phoridae. Springer, HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ferrar P (1987) A guide to the breeding habits and immature stages of Diptera Cyclorrhapha. Entomon 8:1–907Google Scholar
  9. Fraenkel G, Herford GVB (1938) The respiration of insects through the skin. J Exp Biol 15:266–280Google Scholar
  10. Green CH, Burnet B, Connolly KJ (1983) Organisation and patterns of inter- and intraspecific variation in the behaviour of Drosophila larvae. Anim Behav 31:282–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hartley JC (1958) The root-piercing spiracles of the larva of Chrysogaster hirtella Loew (Diptera: Syrphidae). Proc R Entomol Soc Lond A 33:81–87Google Scholar
  12. Hartley JC (1961) A taxonomic account of the larvae of some British Syrphidae. Proc Zool Soc Lond 136:505–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hartley JC (1963) The cephalopharyngeal apparatus of syrphid larvae and its relationship to other Diptera. Proc Zool Soc Lond 141:261–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hennig W (1973) Diptera (Zweiflügler) Kükenthal W, ed. Handbuch der Zoologie, eine Naturgeschichte der Stämme der Tierreiches. IV:1–337Google Scholar
  15. Hinton HE (1947) On the reduction of functional spiracles in the aquatic larvae of the Holometabola, with notes on the moulting process of spiracles. Trans R Entomol Soc Lond 98:449–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Houlihan DF (1969a) The structure and behaviour of Notiphila riparia and Erioptera squalida, two root-piercing insects. J Zool Lond 159:249–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Houlihan DF (1969b) Respiratory physiology of the larva of Donacia simplex, a root-piercing beetle. J Insect Physiol 15:1517–1536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jacial MS, Engstrom L (1995) Fine structure of the spiracular glands in larval Drosophila melanogaster (Meig.) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Int J Insect Morphol Embryol 24:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Keilin D (1944) Respiratory systems and respiratory adaptations in larvae and pupae of Diptera. Parasitology 36:1–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Keister ML (1953) Some observations on pupal respiration in Phormia regina. J Morphol 93:573–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kitching RL (1976) On the prothoracic spiracles of the first instar larvae of Calyptrate Cyclorrhapha (Diptera). J Aust Entomol Soc 15:233–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lambkin C, Sinclair BJ, Pape T, Courtney GW, Skevington JH, Meier R, Yeates DK, Blagoderov V, Wiegmann BM (2013) The phylogenetic relationships among infraorders and superfamilies of Diptera based on morphological evidence. Syst Entomol 38:164–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Maibach A, de Tiefenau G, Speight MCD (1994a) Limites génériques et caractéristiques taxonomiques de plusieurs genres de la tribu des Chrysogasterini (Diptera: Syrphidae) I. Diagnoses génériques et description de Riponnensia gen. nov. Annales Société Entomologique France 30:217–247Google Scholar
  24. Maibach A, de Tiefenau G, Speight MCD (1994b) Limites génériques et caractéristiques taxonomiques de plusieurs genres de la tribu des Chrysogasterini (Diptera: Syrphidae). 11. Statut taxonomique de plusieurs des espèces étudiées et analyse du complexe Melanogaster macquarti (Loew). Annales Société Entomologique France 30:253–271Google Scholar
  25. Murphy WL, Knutson LV, Chapman EG, McDonnell RJ, Williams CD, Foote BA, J-C (2012) Key aspects of the biology of snail-killing Sciomyzidae Flies. Annu Rev Entomol 57:425–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Palmén JA (1877) Zur Morphologie des Tracheensystems. Wilhelm Engelmann, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  27. Roddy LR (1953) A morphological study of the respiratory horns associated with the puparia of some Diptera, especially Ophyra anescens (Weid.). Unpublished PhD thesis, Ohio State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  28. Rotheray E (2013) Differences in ecomorphology and microhabitat use of four saproxylic larvae (Diptera, Syrphidae) in Scots pine stump rot holes. Ecol Entomol 38:219–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rotheray GE, Gilbert FS (1989) The phylogeny and systematics of European predacious Syrphidae (Diptera) based on larval and puparial stages. Zool J Linnean Soc 95:29–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rotheray GE, Horsfield D (2013) Development sites and early stages of eleven species of Clusiidae (Diptera) occurring in Europe. Zootaxa 3619:401–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rotheray GE, Lyszkowski R (2015) Diverse mechanisms of feeding and movement in Cyclorrhaphan larvae (Diptera). J Nat Hist 49:2139–2211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rotheray GE, Zumbado M, Hancock EG, Thompson FC (2000) Remarkable aquatic predators in the genus Ocyptamus (Diptera, Syrphidae). Studia Dipterol 7:385–398Google Scholar
  33. Rotheray GE, Chandler PJ, Gilbert F (2004) Final stage larvae and puparia of Platypezidae (Diptera). Insect Syst Evol 35:79–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rotheray GE, Marcos-Garcia M-A, Hancock G, Pérez-Bañón C, Maier CT (2009) Neotropical Copestylum (Diptera, Syrphidae) breeding in Agavaceae and Cactaceae including seven new species. Zool J Linnean Soc 156:697–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Teskey HJ (1981a) Morphology and terminology – Larvae. In: McAlpine J, Peterson BV, Shewell GE, Teskey HJ, Vockeroth JR, Wood DM (eds) Manual Nearctic Diptera, vol 1, pp 65–88Google Scholar
  36. Teskey HJ (1981b) Key to families – Larvae. In: McAlpine J, Peterson BV, Shewell GE, Teskey HJ, Vockeroth JR, Wood DM (eds) Manual Nearctic Diptera, vol 1, pp 125–147Google Scholar
  37. Thorpe WH (1930) The biology of the petroleum fly (Psilopa petrolii (Coq.)). Trans R Entomol Soc Lond 78:331–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Thorpe WH (1934) The biology and development of Crptochaetum grandicorne (Diptera), an internal parasite of Guerinia serratulae (Coccidae). Q J Microsc Sci 77:273–304Google Scholar
  39. Thorpe WH (1941) The biology of Crptochaetum (Diptera) and Eupelmus (Hymenoptera) parasites of Aspidoproctus (Coccidae) in East Africa. Parasitol (Cam) 33:149–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Varley GC (1937) Aquatic insect larvae which obtain oxygen from the roots of plants. Proc R Entomol Soc Lond A 12:55–60Google Scholar
  41. Weise H (1938) Die Atmung den Larven und Puppen der Schwebfliegen aus der Verwandtshaft der Eristalinae unter Berücksichtigung ihrer Metamorphose. Z Wiss Zool 151:467–514Google Scholar
  42. Whitten JM (1960) The tracheal system in selected Diptera Nematocera. J Morphol 107:233–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Graham E. Rotheray
    • 1
  1. 1.National Museums of ScotlandEdinburghUK

Personalised recommendations