From True Democracy to Communism
Marx’s radical intellectual journey from democracy to communism begins with his Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right in which he argues that since democracy has people as its foundation and the author of its constitution, a democratic revolution can generate a true democracy to end man’s political alienation from the state. For Marx, democracy is not a form of constitutional government but the essence of all constitutions. But he realizes, in collaboration with Engels, that underneath the most democratic bourgeois society’s legal equality of all citizens, the capitalist minority dominates the working-class majority. The fact that formal bourgeois democracy conceals the exploitative content of the capitalist system leaves no option for the real human emancipation but the eradication of the capitalist system through proletarian revolutions.