• Yadullah Shahibzadeh


Nowadays, Marxism and left-wing politics are in a weak position in Iran and Europe. In nineteenth-century Europe, Marxism was a revolutionary politico-intellectual response to the main paradox of the emerging capitalist societies. This paradox consisted of the law recognizing freedom and equality of all citizens while the location of the majority of the citizens, known as the proletariat, within the capitalist mode of production denied them real freedom and equality. Contrary to the nineteenth-century politico-intellectual response, which made its contemporary proletariat the agents of freedom and equality, the twenty-first-century European “Marxism and left-wing” politico-intellectual tendencies present their contemporary proletariat as a threat to the existing liberty and equality governing the European societies. For the Iranian Marxists and post-Marxists, this is a European problem.

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Yadullah Shahibzadeh
    • 1
  1. 1.OsloNorway

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