Contemporary Islamic Orientations and Transnational Muslim Organisations in the West

  • Adis Duderija
  • Halim Rane
Part of the New Directions in Islam book series (NDI)


This chapter presents an overview of the major contemporary social and discursive orientations among Western Muslims and major transnational Muslim organisations operating in the West. This chapter highlights the diversity of these organisations along with an examination of their ideological underpinnings. While it makes reference to a number of studies that have constructed various typologies of contemporary Islamic trends from both discursive and sociological, theoretical, and methodological vantage points, this chapter offers a detailed examination of two influential organisations, the Hizmet Movement (HM) and the European Council for Fatwa and Research (ECFR), that represent different types of organisations on the Islamic spectrum. These case studies provide insights into two organisations that can be contrasted by their respective emphasis on a bottom-up approach to social relations and cohesion within the Western context versus a more top-down focus on the Western Muslim adherence to jurisprudential and theologically oriented norms. They also showcase the different approaches to Islam in the West that emerge as a result of different external/foreign influences and agendas.


  1. Ameli, S.R. 2002. Globalization, Americanization and British Muslim Identity. London: ICAS Press.Google Scholar
  2. Asad, Talal. 1986. The Idea of an Anthropology of Islam. Washington, DC: Center for Contemporary Arab Studies.Google Scholar
  3. Barzegar, Abbas. 2011. Discourse, Identity, and Community: Problems and Prospects in the Study of Islam in America. The Muslim World 101: 511–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bilici, Mucahit. 2006. The Fethullah Gülen Movement and Its Politics of Representation in Turkey. The Muslim World 96: 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Caeiro, Alexandre. 2011. “The making of the fatwa: The production of Islamic legal expertise in Europe.” Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions 155: 81–100.Google Scholar
  6. Cesari, Jocelyne. 2003. Muslim Minorities in Europe – The Silent Revolution. In Modernizing Islam, ed. J.L. Esposito and F. Burgat, 251–271. London: Hurst and Company.Google Scholar
  7. ———. 2004. Islam in the West – Modernity and Globalization Revisited. In Globalization and the Muslim World: Culture, Religion, and Modernity, ed. Birgit Schaebler and Leif Stenberg, 80–93. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  8. ———. 2017. The Future of Islam: Religious Trends in European Islam. Mediterranean Yearbook 2017, 1–6.Google Scholar
  9. Dassetto, Felice. 1996. La construction d’un Islam européen. Paris: L’Harmattan.Google Scholar
  10. Duderija, Adis. 2008. Identifying Factors Determining Religious Identity Constructions Among Western Born Muslims: Towards a Theoretical Framework. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 28 (3): 371–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. ———. 2010. Progressive Muslims—Defining and Delineating Identities and Ways of Being a Muslim. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 30 (1): 127–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. ———. 2011. Constructing Religiously Ideal ‘Believer’ and ‘Muslim Woman’ Concepts: Neo-Traditional Salafi and Progressive Muslim Methods of Interpretation (Manahij), Palgrave Series in Islamic Theology, Law and History. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. ———. 2013. Critical Progressive Muslim Thought: Reflections on Its Political Ramifications. Review of Faith and International Affairs 11 (3): 69–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. ———. 2017. The Imperatives of Progressive Islam. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Ebaugh, Helen Rose. 2010. The Gülen Movement: A Sociological Analysis of a Civic Movement Rooted in Moderate Islam. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eid, P. 2002. Ethnic and Religious Identity Retention among Second Generation of Arab Youths in Montreal. Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto.Google Scholar
  17. Fitzgerald, Scott T. 2017. Conceptualizing and Understanding the Gülen Movement. Sociology Compass 11 (3): 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gardner, Katy. 1993. Mullahs, Migrants, Miracles: Travel and Transformation in Sylhet. Contributions to Indian Sociology 27 (2): 213–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gerges, Fawaz. 2016. ISIS: A History. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gilliat, S. 1994. Perspectives on the Religious Identity of Muslims in Britain. Ph.D. thesis, University of Wales, Lampeter.Google Scholar
  21. Hendrick, Joshua D. 2013. Approaching a Sociology of Fethullah Gülen. Sociology of Islam 1: 131–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hermansen, Marcia. 2003. How to Put the Genie Back in the Bottle? ‘Identity’ Islam and Muslim Youth Cultures in America. In Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender and Pluralism, ed. Omid Safi, 306–318. Oxford: Oneworld.Google Scholar
  23. Incetas, Yusuf. 2014. A Phenomenon in the Making: The Hizmet Movement, Its Philosophy on Education, Schools, and Notions of Bilingual Education, Ph.D thesis, Chicago; University of Illinois, unpublished.Google Scholar
  24. Keskin, Tugrul. 2009. A Comparative Analysis of Islamist Movements in the Neoliberalization Process: Jama’at-e-Islami in Pakistan and the Fethullah Gulen Movement in Turkey–Reactions to Capitalism, Modernity and Secularism. PhD thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg.Google Scholar
  25. Klinkhammer, Gritt. 2000. Moderne Formen islamischer Lebensfuehrung. Marburg: Diagonal Verlag.Google Scholar
  26. Krause, Wanda. 2012. Civility in Islamic Activism: Towards a Better Understanding of Shared Values for Civil Society Development. In European Muslims, Civility and Public Life: Perspectives on and from the Gülen Movement, ed. Paul Weller and Ihsan Yilmaz, 1st ed., 55–64. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  27. Mandaville, Peter. 2002. Muslim Youth in Europe. In Islam: Europe’s Second Religion: The New Social, Cultural, and Political Landscape, ed. Shireen T. Hunter, 219–231. Westport: Praeger.Google Scholar
  28. Marechal, Brigitte, Stefano Allievi, Felice Dassetto, and Jorgen Nielsen. 2003. Muslims in Enlarged Europe – Religion and Society. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  29. Nielsen, Jorgen, and Jonas Otterbeck. 2016. Muslims in Western Europe. 4th ed. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Noor, Farish. 2003. What Is the Victory of Islam? Towards a Different Understanding of the Ummah and the Political Success in the Contemporary World. In Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender and Pluralism, ed. Omid Safi, 320–332. Oxford: Oneworld.Google Scholar
  31. Ramadan, T. 2005. Western Muslims and the Future of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Roy, O. 2004. Globalized Islam. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Saeed, Abdullah. 2007. Trends in Contemporary Islam: A Preliminary Attempt at a Classification. The Muslim World 97 (3): 395–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shavit, Uriya. 2015. Shari’a and Muslim Minorities: The wasati and salafi approaches to fiqh al-aqalliyyat al-Muslima. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shavit, Uriya, and Iyad Zahalka. 2015. A Religious Law for Muslims in the West: The European Council for Fatwa and Research and the Evolution of fiqh al-aqalliyyat al-muslima. In Routledge Handbook of Islam in the West, ed. Roberto Tottoli, 365–377. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  36. Tottoli, R., ed. 2015. Routledge Handbook of Islam in the West. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Waardenburg, J. 2000. Normative Islam in Europe. In Paroles d’Islam-Individus, Societes et Discours dans l’Islam Europeen Contemporain, Maisonneuve et Larose, ed. F. Dassetto, 49–69. Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose.Google Scholar
  38. Weller, Paul. 2012. Dialogical and Transformative Resources: Perspectives from Fethullah Gulen on Religion and Public Life. In European Muslims, Civility and Public Life: Perspectives on and from the Gülen Movement, ed. Paul Weller and Ihsan Yilmaz, 3–21. London/New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  39. Weller, Paul, and Ihsan Yilmaz, eds. 2012. European Muslims, Civility and Public Life: Perspectives on and from the Gülen Movement. London/New York: Continuum.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adis Duderija
    • 1
  • Halim Rane
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Humanities, Languages and Social ScienceGriffith UniversityNathanAustralia

Personalised recommendations