Resettlement Challenges for Children After Disasters (Case Study): Bam City

  • Hedyeh Gamini
  • Hamid Amouzad Khalili
Part of the Sustainable Development Goals Series book series (SDGS)


The Bam earthquake catastrophe has had many negative effects on children. The purpose of establishing post-disaster “child-friendly spaces” is to provide an opportunity for children by designing safe spaces, in addition to creating good physical and psychological conditions that will be effective in helping children to rehabilitate faster after disasters. Bam city, after the horrible earthquake in 2003, was an example of a situation in which a child-friendly approach was considered, and governmental and international organizations and NGOs became involved there and constructed several child-friendly spaces. It seems that, 10 years after the earthquake, an assessment of child-friendly spaces’ impacts is particularly important. Methodology included qualitative assessment-based approaches, and the content analysis method was adopted. In this study, interviews and group meetings were conducted, including presence of children who became juvenile and adolescent during the 10 years after the earthquake, along with parents and educators working in child-friendly spaces; and thus comments of children in relation to child-friendly spaces were collected and analyzed. Results indicate that despite most children being completely satisfied with these spaces, there are still challenges in the optimal planning and design of such spaces. For example, there are proposed strategies including localization of activities, considering the effect of climate on design and also the use of indigenous architectural knowledge, as well as paying attention to secure pathways for children. Providing furniture, interior design, and suitable equipment for children, separating health services, the use of resistant and waterproof tents and colorful ones with age-appropriate and happy schemes, and also increasing green space in addition to the closed spaces were requested by children as feedback on the post-disaster child-friendly space design of Bam.


Post-disaster planning and design Child-friendly spaces Bam earthquake Content analysis 


  1. Child Protection Working Group. (2012). Minimum Standards for Child Protection in Humanitarian Response. Geneva: CPWG.Google Scholar
  2. Fallahi, A. (2009). Disaster assessment, risk-taking, vulnerability and damage. Tehran: Scientific-Applied High Education Institute of Crescent.Google Scholar
  3. Global Protection Cluster, Global Educational Cluster, INEE, IASC. (2011). Guidlines for child freindly spaces in emergencies.Google Scholar
  4. Kamelnia, H., & Haghir, S. (2009). Landscaping design patterns in child friendly city (case study: Child-friendly city of bam). Quarterly Garden, 6, 77–88.Google Scholar
  5. Kostenly, K. (2008). Starting up child centered spaces in emergencies: A field manual. Richmond: Christian Children’s Fund.Google Scholar
  6. Metzler, J., et al. (2013a). Evaluation of child friendly spaces: Uganda field study summary report. New York: World Vision International & Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health.Google Scholar
  7. Metzler, J., Savage, K., Vojta, M., Yamano, M., Schafer, A., & Ager, A. (2013b). Evaluation of child friendly spaces: Ethiopia field study summary report. World Vision International & Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health.Google Scholar
  8. Save the Children. (2011). Community based child protection emergency project: Internal evaluation report.Google Scholar
  9. UNICEF. (2008). A practical guid for developing child friendly spaces. 7–16.Google Scholar
  10. UNICEF. (2004). Minimum standards for child friendly spaces and children’s centres darfur states- FINAL. October.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hedyeh Gamini
    • 1
  • Hamid Amouzad Khalili
    • 2
  1. 1.Shahid Beheshti UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations