These Colors Don’t Run: Regulation of Pigment—Biosynthesis in Echinoderms

  • Cristina Calestani
  • Gary M. WesselEmail author
Part of the Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation book series (RESULTS, volume 65)


Pigment production is an important biological process throughout the tree of life. Some pigments function for collecting light energy, or for visual identification, while others have dramatic antimicrobial functions, or camouflage capabilities. The functions of these pigments and their biosynthesis are of great interest if only because of their diversity. The biochemistry of echinoderm pigmentation has been intensively studied for many years, and with more recent technologies, the origin and functions of these pigments are being exposed. Here we summarize the major pigment types in biology and emphasize the status of the field in echinoderms, taking full advantage of the new genomic and technologic resources for studying these important animals and their beautiful pigmentation.


Melanin Carotenoids Porphyrins Quinones Polyketides Polyketide synthase CRISPR/Cas9 Echinoderm Sea urchin 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyValdosta State UniversityValdostaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and BiochemistryBrown UniversityProvidenceUSA

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