Vaccines Against LSD and Vaccination Strategies

  • Shawn Babiuk


Since there are no drug treatments for lumpy skin disease (LSD), vaccination using live attenuated vaccines are used to control the disease. The main prerequisites of a good vaccine are safety and protection from infection. The safety of a vaccine is determined by the frequency and severity of the adverse reactions it might cause, by the probability of reversion to virulence and by its purity. Protection provided by a vaccine depends on the specific immunologic response it elicits and can be measured by its efficacy or effectiveness. The efficacy of a vaccine is represented by the percentage of morbidity prevented by vaccination. Since capripoxviruses are genetically similar and have no serotypes, it was previously suggested that the development of a single capripoxvirus vaccine to protect against all three species should be possible (Kitching 1983, 2003). However, currently there is no universal vaccine available. There are several reasons for this. One reason is that although capripoxvirus vaccines may be effective for a particular host, they may not be as effective in a different host due to being not fully attenuated, over attenuated and/or not immunogenic. This is due to the complex virus-host interactions which determine virulence as well as the immune response elicited. The quality control and production of the vaccines may not follow the guidelines provided by the good manufacturing practices (GMP) for biological products by the World Health Organization. An additional reason is the geographic distributions of sheeppox, goatpox and LSD, which are partially different. There are countries which have only sheep- and/or goatpox without LSD, countries which only have LSD and countries which have sheep- and/or goatpox as well as LSD (Babiuk et al. 2008). Due to potential safety issues, affected countries will tend to use only those capripoxvirus vaccines containing viruses present in the country (Tuppurainen and Oura 2012). This has led to regulatory challenges to authorize the use of these vaccines in the country or region.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shawn Babiuk
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Canadian Food Inspection Agency, National Centre for Foreign Animal DiseaseWinnipegCanada
  2. 2.University of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

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