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The Ecology of Pathogen Spillover and Disease Emergence at the Human-Wildlife-Environment Interface

  • Kathleen A. Alexander
  • Colin J. Carlson
  • Bryan L. Lewis
  • Wayne M. Getz
  • Madhav V. Marathe
  • Stephen G. Eubank
  • Claire E. Sanderson
  • Jason K. Blackburn
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Environmental Microbiology book series (AEM, volume 5)

Abstract

Novel diseases are increasingly emerging into human populations through the complex—and often, unseen—stepwise process of spillover from a combination of wildlife, livestock, vectors, and the abiotic environment. Characterizing and modeling the spillover interface are a key part of how eco-epidemiologists respond to the growing global burden of emerging infectious diseases; but the diversity of pathogen life cycles and transmission modes poses a complex challenge for ecologists and clinicians alike. We review our current understanding of the spillover process and present a framework that relates spillover rates and human-to-human transmissibility to the basic reproduction number (R0). Using pathogens that exemplify important transmission pathways (anthrax, Ebola, influenza, and Zika), we illustrate key aspects of the spillover interface and discuss implications to public health and management of emerging infectious disease.

Keywords

Eco-epidemiology Spillover Emerging diseases Anthrax Ebola Vector Host 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding

This work has been partially supported by NSF CNH 114953, NSF CNH 1518486, and NSF EEID 1518663 (KAA), NSF HSD Grant SES-0729441, NIH MI- DAS project 2U01GM070694-7, NSF PetaApps Grant OCI-0904844, DTRA15R&D Grant HDTRA1-0901-0017, DTRA CNIMS Grant HDTRA1-07-C-0113 (MM,SE), NSF EEID 1617982 (WMG), and NIH 1R01GM117617-01 (JKB). We thank B. Singer for comments on this chapter.

Conflict of Interest

All authors declare they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathleen A. Alexander
    • 1
  • Colin J. Carlson
    • 2
  • Bryan L. Lewis
    • 3
  • Wayne M. Getz
    • 2
  • Madhav V. Marathe
    • 4
  • Stephen G. Eubank
    • 4
  • Claire E. Sanderson
    • 1
  • Jason K. Blackburn
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Fish and Wildlife ConservationVirginia TechBlacksburgUSA
  2. 2.Department Environmental Science, Policy and ManagementUC BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA
  3. 3.Department of Population Health Sciences, Department of Computer ScienceBiocomplexity Institute, Virginia TechBlacksburgUSA
  4. 4.Network Dynamics and Simulation Sciences LaboratoryBiocomplexity Institute, Virginia TechBlacksburgUSA
  5. 5.Department of GeographyUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

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