Advertisement

Embryo Biopsies for Genomic Selection

  • Erik Mullaart
  • David Wells
Chapter

Abstract

Embryo genomic selection (preimplantation genetic screening) is increasingly being used to select the best embryos within cattle breeding programs. The procedure starts with the collection of a few cells (biopsy) from each of the embryos before they are individually cryopreserved. The biopsy samples are then genotyped, and the genomic estimated breeding value for each embryo is calculated from prediction equations. These are based on algorithms developed from large reference populations of previously genotyped and phenotyped animals. Based on the genomic estimated breeding value, a decision is made whether to thaw and transfer the embryo or not. Due to the recent availability of low-density bovine single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays, this method is now cost effective. The data in this review describe field results and show that the breeding values calculated from the embryo biopsies are reliable enough for selection. Importantly, the embryo manipulation associated with the procedure only has a very limited negative effect on the resulting pregnancy rate. The method can also be used to prevent the transfer of embryos that are carriers of known recessive lethal genetic defects or other chromosomal aberrations. Therefore it can be concluded that embryo genomic selection can be used in breeding programs to accelerate the rate of genetic gain compared to animal-based genomic selection due to an increased selection intensity among full- and half-sib embryos. Although this review only describes results in dairy cattle, embryo genomic selection can also be used in beef cattle and other livestock species where accurate genomic prediction equations exist.

Keywords

Embryo Biopsy Genotyping Bovine Genomic selection Preimplantation genetic screening Animal breeding Genetic gain 

References

  1. Bermejo-Alvarez P, Pericuesta E, Miranda A et al (2011) New challenges in the analysis of gene transcription in bovine blastocysts. Reprod Domest Anim 46(Suppl 3):2–10CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bredbacka P (1998) Recent developments in embryo sexing and its field application. Reprod Nutr Dev 38(6):605–613CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Browning SR, Browning BL (2007) Rapid and accurate haplotype phasing and missing-data inference for whole-genome association studies by use of localized haplotype clustering. Am J Hum Genet 81(5):1084–1097CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Calus MP, Schrooten C, Veerkamp RF (2014) Genomic prediction of breeding values using previously estimated SNP variances. Genet Sel Evol 46:52CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. De Roos APW, Schrooten C, Mullaart E et al (2009) Genomic selection at CRV. Interbulletin 39:47–50Google Scholar
  6. Destouni A, Zamani Esteki M, Catteeuw M et al (2016) Zygotes segregate entire parental genomes in distinct blastomere lineages causing cleavage-stage chimerism and mixoploidy. Genome Res 26(5):567–578CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Druet T, Georges M (2010) A hidden Markov model combining linkage and linkage disequilibrium information for haplotype reconstruction and quantitative trait locus fine mapping. Genetics 184(3):789–798CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. El-Sayed A, Hoelker M, Rings F et al (2006) Large-scale transcriptional analysis of bovine embryo biopsies in relation to pregnancy success after transfer to recipients. Physiol Genomics 28(1):84–96CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Fisher PJ, Hyndman DL, Bixley MJ et al (2012) Potential for genomic selection of bovine embryos. Proc N Z Soc Anim Prod 72:156–158Google Scholar
  10. Garcia-Herreros M, Carter TF, Villagmez DAF et al (2010) Incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in bovine blastocysts derived from unsorted and sex-sorted spermatozoa. Reprod Fertil Dev 22(8):1272–1278CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ghanem N, Salilew-Wondim D, Gad A et al (2011) Bovine blastocysts with developmental competence to term share similar expression of developmentally important genes although derived from different culture environments. Reproduction 142(4):551–564CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kasinathan P, Wei H, Xiang T et al (2015) Acceleration of genetic gain in cattle by reduction of generation interval. Sci Rep 5:8674CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. King WA, Coppola G, Alexander B et al (2006) The impact of chromosomal alteration on embryo development. Theriogenology 65(1):166–177CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Lund MS, Roos AP, Vries AG et al (2011) A common reference population from four European Holstein populations increases reliability of genomic predictions. Genet Sel Evol 43:43CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. McMillan WH, Donnison MJ (1999) Understanding maternal contributions to fertility in recipient cattle: development of herds with contrasting pregnancy rates. Anim Reprod Sci 57(3–4):127–140CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Misica-Turner PM, Oback F, Eichenlaub M et al (2007) Aggregating embryonic but not somatic nuclear transfer embryos increases cattle cloning efficiency. Biol Reprod 76:268–278CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Mullaart E (2002) Biopsying and genotyping cattle embryos. In: Van Soom A, Boerjan M (eds) Assessment of mammalian embryo quality. Springer, Netherlands, pp 178–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Oback FC, Wei J, Popovic L et al (2017) Blastocyst bisection to multiply biopsied and vitrified bovine embryos. Reprod Fertil Dev 29:154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Orozco-Lucero E, Sirard M-A (2014) Molecular markers of fertility in cattle oocytes and embryos: progress and challenges. Anim Reprod 11(3):183–194Google Scholar
  20. Ponsart C, Le Bourhis D, Knijn H et al (2013) Reproductive technologies and genomic selection in dairy cattle. Reprod Fertil Dev 26(1):12–21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Ramos-Ibeas P, Calle A, Pericuesta E et al (2014) An efficient system to establish biopsy-derived trophoblastic cell lines from bovine embryos. Biol Reprod 91(1):15, 1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Robertson I, Nelson R (1998) Certification and identification of the embryo. In: Stringfellow DA, Seidel SM (eds) Manual of the International Embryo Transfer Society, 3rd edn. International Embryo Transfer Society, Illinois, pp 103–134Google Scholar
  23. Scott RT, Upham KM, Forman EJ et al (2013) Blastocyst biopsy with comprehensive chromosome screening and fresh embryo transfer significantly increases in vitro fertilization implantation and delivery rates: a randomized controlled trial. Fertil Steril 100(3):697–703CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Shojaei Saadi HA, Vigneault C, Sargolzaei M et al (2014) Impact of whole-genome amplification on the reliability of pre-transfer cattle embryo breeding value estimates. BMC Genomics 15(889):1–16Google Scholar
  25. Treff NR, Thompson K, Rafizadeh M et al (2016) SNP array-based analyses of unbalanced embryos as a reference to distinguish between balanced translocation carrier and normal blastocysts. J Assist Reprod Genet 33(8):1115–1119CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Vajta G, Rienzi L, Cobo A et al (2010) Embryo culture: can we perform better than nature. Reprod Biomed Online 20:453–469CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Verma V, Huang B, Kallingappa PK et al (2013) Dual kinase inhibition promotes pluripotency in finite bovine embryonic cell lines. Stem Cells Dev 22:1728–1742CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Viuff D, Palsgaard A, Rickords L et al (2002) Bovine embryos contain a higher proportion of polyploid cells in the trophectoderm than in the embryonic disc. Mol Reprod Dev 62(4):483–488CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Zhang Y, Li N, Wang L et al (2016) Molecular analysis of DNA in blastocoele fluid using next-generation sequencing. J Assist Reprod Genet 33(5):637–645CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CRV BVArnhemThe Netherlands
  2. 2.AgResearchRuakura Research CentreHamiltonNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations