Fever in Non-infectious Diseases
Fever is commonly found in children with haematological disorders, of which sickle-cell anaemia is the most common.
An important cause of febrile illnesses in children with haemolytic disorders is infection with human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19).
Children with cancer are often neutropenic, and any associated fever needs urgent medical attention because of underlying serious bacterial infections, which may be responsible for 50% of deaths.
Fever in children with cancer may be due either to the disease (neoplastic fever) or to infection. The diagnosis of neoplastic fever should only be considered after exclusion of infection.
Early administration of antibiotics to children with febrile neutropenia prior to confirming the infection has improved the survival in these children.
In rheumatology, children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis have the highest incidence of fever. Children may present with persistent fever of unknown origin and are often subjected to intensive investigations, including many trials of antibiotics and occasionally laparotomy.
In Kawasaki disease, fever has diagnostic and prognostic importance: higher temperature during days 10–13 of the disease and its continuation for more than 14 days are a risk factor associated with coronary involvement.
Fever following vaccination is common and usually trivial. It is not a contraindication to further doses of vaccines.
KeywordsFever in haematological Neoplastic fever Rheumatological diseases CNS tumours Leukaemia Lymphoma Kawasaki disease
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Fever after Vaccination
Familial Mediterranean Fever